Tag Archives: molecular immunology

Nobel Laureates of the early 20th century E. Behring, I. Mechnikov, P. Ehrlich, C. Richet, J. Bordet, K. Landsteiner and their contribution to the development of molecular immunology

V. M. Danilova, R. P. Vynogradova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

The discoveries of immunologists have often been recognized as the most significant in the field of medicine and physiology, since the immune system is extremely vital for the organism, and the study of the principles of its functioning is of fundamental importance to the prevention (vaccination), diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. This article refers to the scientists of the early twentieth century, who received the most prestigious scientific award – the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and who built the groundwork for the development of immunology as a science. Thus, in 1901, E. von Behring received the first Nobel Prize “for his work on serum thera­py, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”; in 1908, I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the creating of the cellular and humoral theory of immunity; in 1913 – C. Richet – “in reco­gnition of his work on anaphylaxis”; in 1919 – J. Bordet – “for his discoveries relating to immunity (the role of complement, mechanisms of precipitation, agglutination…)”; in 1930 – K. Landsteiner – “for his discove­ry of human blood groups”. Their works spurred the development of modern molecular immunology – the science of the organization and function of the immune system, as an effective defense barrier in the living organism, which recognize and distinguish between “self” and “non-self”.

Inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine

V. M. Danilova, R. P. Vynogradova, S. G. Torkhova

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and in the context of scholarly and organizational activities of Sergii Vasyl’ovych Komisarenko. This autumn marks 50th anniversary since young Sergii Komisarenko (now – Academician of NAS and NAMS of Ukraine, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor) has joined the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, has completed all stages of the academic carrier from PhD student to Head of the Institute. He is the first in Ukraine who started the new branch of research – molecular immunology, created a strong scientific school, which earned worldwide acclaim and made significant contribution to finding solutions to current problems in human health sciences. S.V. Komisarenko was among those, who were first in the USSR to use immunoenzyme and flow cytofluometric assays, hybridoma technology for producing monoclonal antibodies and immunochemical assay of proteins, which became the basis for development of highly sensitive and highly specific immunodiagnostic systems, which are of high necessity in medicine, veterinary, development of immunotechnologies, environment monitoring, etc.
Under his leadership the Department has made a series of important discoveries and developments including relating to antitumour immunotoxins, effects of low dose radiation on the immune system of Chernobyl liquidators, immunochemical structure of neurotoxin apamine, cytochrom c, fibrinogen and fibrin molecules at different stages of polymerization, diphtheria toxin and its receptor, tuberculosis causing micobacterium, roles of protease-activated receptors (PARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of lymphocytes, nature of polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIGs), among other important scientific contributions.
S.V. Komisarenko and his colleagues also hold numerous (more than 80) author’s certificates and patents in Ukraine and USSR.