Category Archives: Uncategorized

Scientists’ pursuit for SARS-COV-2 coronavirus: strategies against pandemic

S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: svk@biochem.kiev.ua

The article provides a broad and thorough analysis of the current situation regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. The origin and structure of SARS-CoV-2 virus, ways of infection, features of the disease, COVID-19 diagnosis, the use of pharmaceuticals for the disease treatment, the formation of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, vaccines and the effectiveness of antiepidemic quarantine measures are examined. The use of mathematical modeling of the epidemic process and the prospects of quarantine ending are discussed.

The discovery of the DNA double helix, or the revolution that ushered in the era of molecular biology (Nobel Prize 1962)

O. P. Matyshevska*, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiyv;
*e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 19 June 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

The 1950s were marked by groundbreaking discoveries in the research of the molecular structure of DNA. The chronology of awarding Nobel Prizes to the authors of these discoveries, did not always coincide with the chronology of announcing the results of their research. J. Watson and F. Crick published their short paper on the discovery of DNA structure, which rocked the scientific world, in Nature in 1953, but received the Nobel Prize together with M. Wilkins only 9 years later. The discovery of the DNA chemical structure is recognized as one of the greatest biological discoveries of the twentieth century. This landmark scientific breakthrough began the development of a new field of the life sciences: molecular biology.

Interleukin-8 level in the blood of rats with experimental osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism

D. S. Nosivets

SI “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”;
e-mail: dsnosivets@ukr.net

Received: 9 May 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

In the study, the level of interleukin-8 in the blood serum of rats with experimental model of osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism under the influence of NSAID s and paracetamol was estimated. The experiments were performed on 75 white nonlinear rats of both sexes. Experimental osteoarthritis was induced by single intra-articular administration of 0.1 ml of monoiodoacetic acid solution into the knee joint. Experimental hypothyroidism was reconstructed by enteral administration of 0.02% carbimazole solution, given with a drinking­ ration for 6 weeks. On the 42nd day of the experiment, the animals were divided into 14 groups and drug administration began daily for 5 days. The serum level of interleukin-8 was estimated on 42 and 47 days of the experiment by specific ELISA kits. A significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) of the elevated cytokine level under the influence of pharmacotherapy was revealed. According to the degree of influence on degenerative-dystrophic process in the knee joint, the investigated drugs can be arranged as follows: diclofenac sodium > ibuprofen > nimesulide = meloxicam > celecoxib > paracetamol. The results obtained showed that the level of interleukin-8 could be used as an indicator  of  non-steroidal drugs and paracetamol anti-inflammatory activity under  experimental osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism.

Research on diet features of patients with hypothyroidism

O. Oliynyk

Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, Poland;
e-mail: Alexanderoliynyk8@gmail.com

Received: 17 April 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Studies on the relationship between dietary features and hypothyroidism pathogenesis are highly relevant­. The aim of this research was to study the dietary features of patients with hypothyroidism and to determine the possible impact of patients’ food preferences on the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism. We examined 400 women of Polish nationality aged 19-28 years living in the district of Biała Podlaski of the Lublin Voivodeship of Poland who consider themselves healthy.  Blood levels of free (FT3) and total (T3) triiodothyronine, free (FT4) and total (T4) thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the examined women’s diet was determined using questionnaires and nutritional tables. It was revealed, that the prevalence of hypothyroidism among the female subjects was 3.5%. Women with reduced thyroid function were shown to consume 3.78 times less iodine, 2.97 times (P < 0.001) less sodium chloride (table salt), and 1.47 times (P < 0.001) less proteins than those who had normal thyroid function. In addition, women with hypothyroidism consume  2.25 times (P < 0.001) more strumogenic. It is concluded that the use of such the diet could cause a secondary reduction in thyroid function with further development of the hypothyroidism.

Exometabolites of endospore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus identified by genomic-metabolomic profiling

А. M. Ostapchuk, М. D. Shtenikov*, V. О. Ivanytsia

Odesa I. I. Mechnykov National University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: shtenikovnik@gmail.com

Received: 30 March 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

The set of unique bioactive metabolites produced by marine bacilli is already known but the metabolomic of these bacteria  is underinvestigated. The aim of this work was to carry out  the comparative analysis of metabolomic and genomic traits of Bacillus velezensis ONU 553, Bacillus pumilus ONU 554, Bacillus subtilis ONU 559 strains isolated from Black Sea bottom sediments. Organic extracts of each strain were analyzed using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. General annotation of genomes was performed using PATRIC, search for secretory signals in the primary structure of selected proteins with using Signal IP analysis.  The search of biosynthetic gene clusters was performed using antiSMASH, PRISM 3 and BiG-SCAPEs, the reconstruction of metabolites- with PRISM 3 and TransATor analyzes. The study allowed to found and identified 90, 33 and 43 metabolites in the strains Bacillus velezensis ONU 553, Bacillus pumilus ONU 554 and  Bacillus subtilis ONU 559 respectively. The compounds found in metabolome were subdivided into two groups: those which are known members of the genus Bacillus and those new to both genus and prokaryotes in general. Among the secondary metabolites of studied strains the variants of the nonribosomal peptide class  surfactins (anhteisoC16-surfactin, surfactin B2-me ester), gageostatins, fengycins and amicoumacins, and the secreted protease inhibiting pentapeptide GPFPI were identified. The biosynthetic clusters of lipopeptides of the pumilacidin subgroup and amicoumacin antibiotic AI-77A were identified for the first time with the use of  bioinformatic tools. The data obtained replenish the  understanding of the marine bacilli biosynthetic potential.

Honeybee chitosan-melanin complex: isolation and investigation of antimicrobial activity

M. Lootsik1, N. Manko1, O. Gromyko2,
S. Tistechok2, M. Lutsyk (Jr.)3, R. Stoika1*

1Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
2Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
3Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: stoika.rostyslav@gmail.com

Received: 4 May 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Antimicrobial activity of marine crustaceans chitosans is well studied and is widely used in medicine, while chitosans of insects are poorly investigated in this aspect, though they might also be of practical significance. The aim of this study was to isolate and purify chitosan-melanin complex (CMC) from the honeybee­ corpses and to estimate its antimicrobial activity. Antibacterial activity of CMC was evaluated by MTT test, antifungal activity towards Candida albicans was estimated by calculating colony forming units (CFU method). The modified method of CMC isolation and purification was described which differs from the known analogs in deacetylation of chitin-melanin complex by its hydrolysis in 40% NaOH without previous melanin elimination and in further purification of CMC by differential solubilization at distinct pH values. The anti-microbial activity of CMC was characterized by prevalence of candidacidal effect, IC50 towards laboratory strain of C. albicans was 50 μg/ml. The ranking of studied bacteria sensitivity to the CMC action decreased as: E. coli > St. aureus > Ps. aeruginosa. It is suggested that CMC isolated from the honeybee corpses might be a perspective constituent of medicinal compositions for treatment of lesions caused by C. albicans infection.

Diazepinone effect on liver tissue respiration and serum lipid content in rats with a rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease

L. Ya. Shtanova1,2*, P. I. Yanchuk1, S. P. Vesеlsky1,
O. V. Tsymbalyuk1, T. V. Vovkun2, V. S. Moskvina2, O. V. Shablykina2,
S. L. Bogza2, V. N. Baban1, A. A. Kravchenko3, V. P. Khilya2

1Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv;
*e-mail: shtanova@ukr.net

Received: 5 March 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism  disturbance are thought to be the key violations at PD pathogenesis. Despite long-time  research the causes of PD occurrence are not yet clear. We investigated the influence of diazepinon, a new derivative of benzodiazepine, on liver tissue respiration (LTR), serum lipid content and  behavioral parameters of rats with modeled PD induced by intraperitoneal injections of 2.0 mg/kg rotenone (ROT) within 28 days. LTR was assessed using the polarograph LP-9. Blood samples for biochemical analysis were collected from the inferior vena cava. The behavioral parameters of rats were studied by the open field test. We showed  that in rats with ROT – induced PD the coefficient of liver oxygen consumption was decreased by 33.5% (P < 0.001), the serum content of phospholipids, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free fatty acids and triglycerides was reduced by 21.4% (P < 0.001), 28.8% (P < 0.001), 26.8% (P < 0.001), 30.3% (P < 0.01) and 41.5% (P < 0.001) respectively and the motor disorders were detected. Diazepinone application resulted in a full recovery of  LTR,  serum concentration of phospholipids, partial recovery of serum free fatty acids and triglycerides content and significant improvement of motor behavior. However  diazepinone did not affect the reduced concentration of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in the serum of rats with simulated PD.

The content of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A and TNFα in the blood of patients with type 2 diabetes after therapy with metformin

K. P. Zak*, O. V. Furmanova, V. V. Popova, Ya. A. Sayenko

SI “V.P. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of National Academia of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv;
*e-mail: kpzak2017@gmail.com

Received: 28 February 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Currently the world society is extremely worried about the global increase in the number of patients with diabetes on our planet. Annually 4 million people die of this disease, and the cost of its treatment reaches trillions of dollars. A new highly effective oral antidiabetic drug  metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is one of the most common hypoglycemic remedies  currently prescribed for the first-line treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism of its curative effect is still not clear. The results of our study showed  that metformin treatment of patients with newly diagnosed T2D was followed by  pronounced normalization of  the increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A and TNFα),  inflammation indexes and lymphocyte’s immunophenotype. The obtained data confirm the existing hypothesis about the inflammatory nature of T2D and indicate that the immune system, in particular proinflammatory cytokines, plays a significant role in the mechanism of the curative effect of metformin at  T2D.

Oxidative/antioxidant balance and matrix metalloproteinases level in the knee cartilage of rats under experimental osteoarthritis and probiotic administration

O. Korotkyi*, K. Dvorshchenko, L. Kot,
T. Vovk, M. Tymoshenko, L. Ostapchenko

ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”,
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: korotkyi@gmail.com

Received: 28 June 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the poly-strain probiotic on oxidative-antioxidant balance and the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rat knee cartilage under experimental osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced by a single injection of monoiodoacetate into the knee joint of rats. Probiotic was administered daily for 14 days. Knee cartilages homogenate was used to evaluate  the content of reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide), products of lipids peroxidation (diene conjugates, TBA-active compound, Shiff bases), to determine superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and activity of glutathione-dependent  antioxidant enzymes, the level of reduced and oxidized glutathione. The level of MMPs -1, -2, -3, -8 expression was estimated by ELISA. Osteoarthritis was found to cause a significant increase in the reactive oxygen species level, lipid peroxidation products content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, level of all studied MMPs, and also depletion of glutathione-dependent antioxidant system and the decrease in the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione.The administration of the probiotic was followed by the tendency for the restoration of the parameters to the values of the control group. Thus, the administration of the probiotic to rats with osteoarthritis may be considered as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent for further clinical trials.

Indicators of lipid metabolism disorders in the blood serum of adolescents with metabolic syndrome

L. A. Strashok1,2, O. V. Buznytska1,2*, О. М. Meshkova3

1Kharkіv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine;
2V.N. Karazin Kharkіv National University, Ukraine;
3Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: ebuznickaa@ukr.net; elena.buznytska@gmail.com

Received: 16 April 2018; Accepted:13 November 2020

Atherogenic dyslipidemia is one of the main and early indication of adolescentrs with metabolic syndrome. Because there is not enough information about the nature of dyslipidemia in adolescents and the possibilities of its correction and prevention, the study of this problem is relevant. The goal of the study was to estimate the indexes of lipid metabolism in blood serum of adolescents with metabolic syndrome. We examined 200 obese patients aged 14–18 years, who were divided into two groups with and without metabolic syndrome. The control group consisted of 30 adolescents of similar age with normal body weight. The lipid profile of blood was studied by standardized methods using Cormay Multi semi-automatic photometer­. The level of β-lipoproteins in blood serum was determined by the turbidimetric method. Elevated levels of triglycerides, low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, β-lipoproteins and a tendency to decreased high density lipoprotein level cholesterol were found in the  blood serum of adolescents with metabolic syndrome  as the signs of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Reliable correlations both between the indexes of lipid profile and between atherogenic dyslipidemia indicators and anthropometric indexes were established, indicating an increased risk of lipid metabolic disturbances in individuals with abdominal obesity.