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Discovery of magnetic resonance imaging: Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

V. M. Danilova*, M. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 28 November 2022; Revised: 25 January 2023;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line: 27 February 2023

The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to two researchers, Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield, for their discovery of magnetic resonance imaging. This discovery enabled the creation of two-dimensional images of structures that could not be visualized by other methods. Paul Lauterbur found a way to generate two-dimensional images using magnetic field gradients. By analyzing­ the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, he could determine their origin. Peter Mansfield further developed the use of magnetic field gradients and demonstrated how the signals could be mathematically analyzed, which allowed the development of new effective imaging equipment. In modern medicine, magnetic resonance imaging is of great importance in diagnosing and finding the best treatment for many diseases.

Influence of NF-κB on the development of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the liver of rats under conditions of chronic alcohol intoxication

A. O. Mykytenko1*, O. Ye. Akimov2, G. A. Yeroshenko3, K. S. Neporada1

1Department of Bioorganic and Biological Chemistry,
Poltava State Medical University, Poltava, Ukraine;
2Department of Pathophysiology, Poltava State Medical University, Poltava, Ukraine;
3Department of Medical Biology, Poltava State Medical University, Poltava, Ukraine;

Received: 05 October 2022; Revised: 15 December 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line: 27 February 2023

Alcohol-related liver disease is the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. The purpose of this work is the establishment of the influence of the transcription factor κB on the development of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the liver of rats under conditions of chronic alcohol intoxication. The experiments were performed on 24 male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals: control; animals, which were administered NF-κB inhibitor, namely ammonium pyrrolidinedithio­carbamate (PDTC) at a dose of 76 mg/kg 3 times a week; animals, on which we simulated alcoholic hepatitis and group of combination of alcoholic hepatitis and NF-κB inhibitor. We determined in rat liver homogenate the following biochemical parameters: the activi­ty of NO synthase isoforms, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, the concentration of malonic dialdehyde, the concentration of peroxynitrite, nitrites and nitrosothiols, concentration of sulfide anion and superoxide anion radical production. Chronic alcohol intoxication led to increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on the background of decreased antioxidant activity, thus intensifying lipid peroxidation in the liver. Blockade of the transcription factor κB during chronic alcohol intoxication despite an increase in antioxidant activity and decrease of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production did not ameliorate oxidative damage to the liver. Blockade of activation of nuclear transcription factor κB in rat liver by PDTC reduced the risk of oxidative damage to hepatocytes, but did not reduce the risk of developing nitrosative damage to hepatocytes.

Serum visfatin, resistin levels and inflammation markers in psoriasis patients

A. Majid*, M. Fouad

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Thi-Qar, Thi-Qar, 64001, Iraq;

Received: 08 October 2022; Revised: 02 December 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line: 27 February 2023

Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that varies in severity. Psoriasis is associated with complex disorders, which incorporate metabolic syndrome, obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. Adipose tissue secretes several hormones and cytokines, in particular visfatin and resistin that could be involved in the development of psoriasis by acting as pro-inflammatory or immunoregulatory factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the serum level of visfatin and resistin as well as of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in psoriatic patients. The study included 43 healthy individuals and 45 patients divided into three groups with mild, moderate and severe clinical degrees of disease assessed by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). The results showed a significant increase in the concentration of serum visfatin, resistin, ESR and hs-CRP in patient groups in comparison with a control group. The highest increase in indicators was observed in the group of patients with severe disease compared with the mild and moderate patients groups. The significance of studied indicators as biomarkers of psoriasis disease severity is analyzed.

Agmatine, telomerase and trace minerals levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

D. Ülger*, S. Bakir, Ö. T. Doğan

Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Turkey;

Received: 19 August 2022; Revised: 16 November 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line:  27 February 2023

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease characterized by repetitive, partially or complete upper airway obstructions resulting in hypoxia and bioelectrical wakefulness reactions along with sleep. There is a limited and different information on the biochemical pathways that may determine harmful effects in OSAS patients with different disease severity. Hence, we aimed to estimate the plasma levels of polyamine agmatine, which has many effects on the central nervous system, telomerase and trace minerals in patients with OSAS. The study included 90 volunteer patients diagnosed with OSAS and divided into three groups of 30 people each according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score: mild, moderate and severe. Nocturnal blood oxygen saturation percentage (SpO2) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Plasma agmatine level was defined by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), plasma trace elements (Cu, Co, Mg, Mo, Zn, Se) level by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and serum telomerase level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. It was found that SpO2 value decreased as the disease progressed and showed a negative correlation with BMI, Co and Se plasma levels. The levels of agmatine and telomerase were shown to lower in patients with severe OSAS group compared to other groups.

Bioenergetic characteristics of the murine Nemeth-Kellner lymphoma cells exposed to thiazole derivative in complex with polymeric nanoparticles

M. V. Ilkiv1, Ya. R. Shalai1, H. M. Mazur1, B. O. Manko1,
B. V. Manko1, Yu. V. Ostapiuk2, N. E. Mitina3,
A. S. Zaichenko3, A. M. Babsky1

1Biology Faculty, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
2Chemistry Faculty, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
3Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies,
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine;

Received: 27 September 2022; Revised: 01 December 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line: 27 February 2023

The development of a new anticancer drugs targeted at energy metabolism of tumor cells is a promising­ approach for cancer treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the action of thiazole derivative N-(5-benzyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-3,5-dimethyl-1-benzofuran-2-carboxamide (BF1) and its complex with PEG based polymeric nanoparticle (PEG-PN) on respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential in murine NK/Ly tumor cells. The rate of oxygen uptake in NK/Ly cells was recorded by a polarographic method using a Clark electrode. The mitochondrial potential relative values were registered using fluorescence TMRM dye. No changes in glucose-fuelled basal respiration or maximal FCCP-stimulated respiration was detected after 15-min incubation of cells with BF1 (10 µM), PEG-PN or BF1 + PEG-PN complex Fluorescent microscopy data showed that BF1 or PEG-PN separately had no effect on the value of mitochondrial membrane potential, while BF1 + PEG-PN complex caused a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating­ on the decrease of NK/Ly cells viability.

Prooxidant-antioxidant profile in tissues of rats under the action of thiosulfonate esters

N. M. Liubas1*, R. Ya. Iskra2, B. І. Kotyk1,
N. Ya. Monka3, V. I. Lubenets3

1Institute of Animal Biology, NAAS of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine;
2Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Lviv, Ukraine;
3Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine;

Received: 27 August 2022; Revised: 29 November 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line: 27 February 2023

Thiosulfonates are characterized by a wide spectrum of biological activity and have effective antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor and antiparasitic effects. However, the use of synthetic sulfur-containing compounds for therapeutic and preventive purposes requires the study of their effect on the protective mechanisms of maintaining homeostasis, the antioxidant status of the body in particular. The aim of the study was to estimate lipid peroxidation process and the state of the antioxidant system in the kidneys, spleen, brain, and muscles of rats under the influence of newly synthesized sulfur-containing compounds of S-alkyl esters of thiosulfonic acids S-ethyl-4-aminobenzenethiosulfonate (ETS), S-allyl-4-aminobenzenethiosulfonate (ATS) and S-allyl-4-acetylaminobenzenethiosulfonate (AATS). Male Wistar rats kept on a standard diet were divided into four groups of 5 animals each: I (control), II, III, IV (experimental). The animals of the control group received additional 0.5 ml of oil and the animals of the experimental groups 0.5 ml of oil solution of thiosulfonate esters once a day. The animals of II, III and IV groups were given ETS, ATS, AATS at the rate of 100 mg per kg of body weight. The lipid hydroperoxides (LPH), TBA-active products, GSH content and activity of SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase in tissue homogenates were determined. The multidirectional changes of the studied indicators after consumption of S-alkyl esters of thiosulfonic acids for 21 days have been identified and characterized indicating on different degree of inhibition or activation of LPO processes depending on the type of tissue and the structure of thiosulfonate ester.

The role of microRNA-613 and its related genes in ovarian cancer

M. M. Mohammed, M. M. Ramzy*, S. S. Gaber,
H. A. Mohamed, M. R. Mohamed, A. M. Abdalla

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt;

Received: 19 October 2022; Revised: 25 November 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line: 27 February 2023

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Multiple genetic and epigenetic abnormalities have been detected in ovarian cancers. As microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis, numerous researchers aim to determine the molecular mechanism that regulates the cancer cells proliferation and metastasis. In the current study, the expression of microRNA-613 and related KRAS and Ezrin genes was assessed by Real-time PCR in ovarian cancer tissue and the adjacent apparently normal tissues. Our results revealed that the expression of miRNA-613 was downregulated in ovarian cancer while the expression of KRAS and Ezrin was higher in cancer tissues compared to apparently normal ovarian tissues. There was a negative correlation between the expression of miRNA-613 and both KRAS and Ezrin genes expression and a positive correlation between KRAS and Ezrin gene expression. The results obtained confirm that miRNA-613 acts as a tumor-suppressive gene in ovarian cancer and can realize such impact through the expression of KRAS and Ezrin genes. These data contribute to the identification of potential biomarkers and novel targets for OC early detection and treatment.

Computational investigation of honeybee venom proteins as potential Omicron SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors

H. A. Al-Madhagi1*, M. G. Saleh2

1Biochemical Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Dhamar University, Yemen;
2Division of Microbiology, Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Dhamar University, Yemen;

Received: 01 October 2022; Revised: 07 November 2022;
Accepted: 17 February 2023; Available on-line:   February 2023

Because of the catastrophic consequences of COVID-19 on the world population, there should be novel­ interventions to handle ongoing infections and daily death cases. The aim of the current study is to examine the effectiveness of HBV (Honeybee venom) proteins on spike protein RBD by in silico tools. The sequences of 5 HBV proteins were used for homology modeling by Phyre 2. The generated protein models were employed for protein-protein docking against Omicron Spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) (PDB ID# 7T9L) through HDock and ClusPro platforms followed by prediction of binding affinity using PRODIGY web portal and PDBsum for revealing interaction details. It was found that all of the examined HBV proteins exhibi­ted strong docking scores and binding affinity profiles toward RBD. The findings of the present study indicate the possible HBV as preventive as well as treatment options against Omicron SARS-CoV-2.

Ubiquitin and its role in proteolisis: the 2004 Nobel prize in chemistry

O. P. Matyshevska*, M. V. Grigorieva,
V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 11 November 2021; Revised: 29 September 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 19 December 2022

In the early 1980-s, Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, and Irwin Rose discovered one of the most important cyclic cellular processes – a regulated ATP-dependent protein degradation, for which they were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. These scientists proved the existence of a non-lysosomal proteolysis pathway and completely changed the perception of intracellular protein degradation mechanisms. They demonstrated pre-labelling of a doomed protein in a cell with a biochemical marker called ubiquitin. Polyubiquitylation of a protein as a signal for its proteolysis was a new mechanism discovered as a result of collaborative efforts of three scientists on isolation of enzymes involved in this sequential process, clarification of the biochemical stages, and substantiating the energy dependence mechanism. The article contains biographical data of the Nobel laureates, the methods applied, and the history of the research resulted in the discovery of the phenomenon of proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-mediated proteins.

Toxocariasis in children with digestive system diseases

K. T. Hlushko*, H. A. Pavlyshyn

I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University,
Department of Pediatrics No 2, Ternopil, Ukraine;

Received: 29 January 2022; Revised: 29 September 2022;
Accepted: 01 October 2022; Available on-line: 19 December 2022

Toxocariasis is common among children and causes digestive diseases. The aim of the work was to study the development of toxocariasis in children with digestive diseases. The serum levels of specific IgG to Toxocara canis and Ascaris, levels of IL-4 and TNF-α were determined in 63 children. In addition, tests for parasites and a retrospective survey in order to assess sanitation and hygiene practices were conducted. All children were divided into two groups: group I includes 19 (30.2%) patients seropositive for toxocariasis, and group II – 44 (69.8%) children without any parasites. The level of IL-4 was higher in group I (18.0 ± 6.4 pg/ml) than in group II (7.2 ± 2.0 pg/ml) (P < 0.001. While the level of TNF-α did not differ significantly between groups I (4.5 ± 2.1 pg/ml) and II (3.6 ± 1.1 pg/ml) (P > 0.05). A higher incidence of Toxocara was observed among rural residents (78.9%). Children with toxocariasis more often had soil-pica (42.1%), played with dogs (100%), and did not wash their hands (84.2%) compared to the group of uninfected children. It was noted that hygienic habits and place of living contribute to Toxocara canis infection. IL-4 levels were considerably higher in group I than in group II that can be accounted for the host immune response activation, at the same time, the levels of TNF-α did not differ. Children without toxocariasis had also increased levels of IL-4, which may be related to past helminthic infection.