Category Archives: Uncategorized

Review of the monograph “Biochemical kinetics”, S. O. Kosterin and S. O. Karakhim

O. H. Minchenko, O. O. Khita

Review of the monograph “Biochemical kinetics”, S. O. Kosterin and  S. O. Karakhim 

Ischemia modified albumin and thiol/disulfide balance in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

E. Avci1*, A. Karabulut2, G. Alp Avci3, C. Bilgi4

1University of Health Sciences, Gülhane Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry, Ankara, Turkey;
2Hitit University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of InternalMedicine, Corum, Turkey;
3University of Health Sciences, Gülhane Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ankara, Turkey;
4Yüksek İhtisas University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ankara, Turkey;
*e-mail: emre.avci@sbu.edu.tr, avci.emre@yahoo.com

Received: 01 November 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

Hashimoto thyroiditis is a common cause of goiter and acquired hypothyroidism in individuals residing in areas of no iodine deficiency. The fact that the structure of serum albumin exhibits changes in ischemic conditions has paved the way for the discovery of a new serum cardiac ischemia marker, Ischemia Modified Albumin. The other one, thiol/disulphide homeostasis, plays an important part in antioxidative protection, detoxification, cell growth, and apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate both the relationship between Thiol/Disulphide homeostasis and Ischemia Modified Albumin in patients diagnosed with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. A total of 70 Hashimoto’’s thyroiditis patients and 50 healthy ones were included in this study. Age, gender, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (TG) levels were recorded. Ischemia Modified Albumin and thiol-disulphid homeostasis parameters were measured through automated spectrophotometric methods. The ages of individuals included in the study ranged from 35 to 58 years. The native thiol/total thiol were found to be significantly lower in Hashimoto patients when compared to those enrolled in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas the Ischemia Modified Albumin, disulphide, native thiol, total thiol, disulphide/native thiol, and disulphide/total thiol were found to be significantly higher in Hashimoto patients when compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). Increased Ischemia Modified Albumin, native and total thiol, and disulphide levels are related to increased oxidative stress. Although Ischemia Modified Albumin and Thiol-disulphide defense are important oxidative indicators in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, many determinants are known to be involved in this process.

The NADH-ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the rat kidney mitochondria under the conditions of different protein and sucrose content in the diet

O. M. Voloshchuk*, М. S. Ursatyy, G. P. Kopylchuk

Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Institute of Biology, Chemistry and Natural Resources, Ukraine;
*e-mail: o.voloschuk@chnu.edu.ua

Received: 11 November 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

The NADH-ubiquinone reductase (EC 7.1.1.2) and succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.5.1) activity, the levels of total ubiquinone and its redox forms, and the degree of oxidative modification of mitochondrial proteins in the rat kidney were investigated. It was found that when consuming a low-protein diet there is a decrease in NADH-ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity by 1.4-1.7 times, a 20% decrease in total ubiquinone and a quantitative redistribution of its oxidized and reduced form with a predominance of oxidized form. Under the studied conditions, there is no accumulation of carbonyl derivatives, but the level of free SH-groups is significantly reduced compared with control. At the same time, in animals consuming a high-sucrose diet there is an increase in NADH-ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity by 1.5-2 times and maintenance of the total ubiquinone at the control level against the background of redistribution of its redox forms, namely a decrease in reduced ubiquinone and an increase in oxidized ubiquinone on average by 1.5 times. In addition, there is an intensification of the reactions of free radical damage of mitochondrial proteins in kidney cells, as evidenced by an increase in the level of carbonyl derivatives and a significant decrease in the level of free protein SH-groups by approximately 1.4-1.5 times. The most pronounced changes in the studied indicators are found in animals that consumed a low-protein/high-sucrose diet. In particular, an excessive consumption of sucrose on the background of protein deficiency is accompanied by a reduction of NADH-ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity by 1.7-2 times, a decrease in total ubiquinone level by approximately 1.4 times, and a two-fold decrease in reduced ubiquinone against the background of intensification of the free radical oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, which can be considered as a prerequisite for the impairment of the renal function under the conditions of carbohydrate-protein imbalance.

Oxidative and mutagenic effects of low intensity microwave radiation on quail embryos

A. Burlaka1, O. Tsybulin2*, O. Brieieva1,
O. Salavor3, I. Yakymenko3,4

1R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine;
3National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine;
4Kyiv Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: alex.tsybulin@gmail.com

Received: 18 December 2020; Accepted: 21 January 2022

Intensive implementation of wireless communication systems raised the question of the possible adverse effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation. This study aims to assess the biological effects of low intensity microwaves (MW) radiation from smartphone Huawei Y5I commercial model used alone or in combination with attached Waveex chip that balances low frequency electromagnetic field but does not affect microwave signal. The biological model of developing quail embryos in ovo was used in the study. The phone as a source of low intensity 1800 MHz (0.32 µW/cm2) microwaves radiation was placed at 3 cm over the surface of hatching eggs and discontinuously activated with a computer program (48 s – on, 12 s – off). It was demonstrated that the exposure of quail embryos to radiation resulted in a statistically significant increase in the content of superoxide, nitrogen oxide and TBA products, DNA integrity damage in embryo cells and increased embryo mortality. Application of Waveex chip during the exposure resulted in a partial normalization of oxidative status and DNA integrity in embryonic cells indicating a negative impact not only of MW radiation, but of low-frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile devices as well.

Protein content in the parental diet affects cold tolerance and antioxidant system state in the offspring Drosophila

O. M. Strilbytska1*, U. V. Semaniuk1, N. I. Burdyliuk1, O. V. Lushchak1,2*

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Research and Development University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 02 February 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

Dietary nutrients are the key determinants of the lifespan and metabolic health. The content of specific dietary compounds in the parental diet can epigenetically affect the physiological state of the offspring. Here, we studied how variable dietary protein content in the diet of parental generation affects antioxidant capacity of Drosophila melanogaster adult offspring. The dry yeast concentration ranging from 0.25% to 15% in the parental diet was the only variable in the experiments, whereas subsequent generation was kept on a diet of the same composition. We found, that flies fed with yeast-restricted (0.25%) diet produced F1 male flies with a higher cold tolerance and higher activity of the second-line antioxidant enzymes whereas in F1 females no effect of parental diet composition on the cold tolerance, catalase, GST, G6PDH, IDH activity and low thiols content was detected. The results suggest that nutrient-dependent changes of genes expression in the flies of paternal generation differently affect the stress response of males and females of the first-generation offspring.

New dinuclear cyanido complexes with amine alcohol ligand: synthesis, characterization and biotechnological application potential

N. Korkmaz1*, Ş. A. Korkmaz2, Y. Ceylan3,
R. İmamoğlu3, A. S. Bülbül4, A. Karadağ5

1Department of Basic Sciences and Health, Hemp Institute, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey;
2Department of Chemistry and Chemical Processing Technologies, Tunceli Vocational School, Munzur University, Tunceli, Turkey;
3Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey;
4Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey;
5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey;
*e-mail: nesrinokumus@gmail.com

Received: 14 September 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

In this study, the cyanido complexes given by the formula [Ni(Abut)Ni(CN)4]·8H2O (C1), [Cu(Abut)2Ni(CN)4]·7H2O (C2), [Zn(Abut)Ni(CN)4]·8H2O (C3) and [Cd(Abut)Ni(CN)4]·7H2O (C4) were obtained by microwave synthesis method. The powder forms of the complexes were characterized by elemental, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. And also antibacterial, antibiofilm and anticancer activities were investigated. The splitting stretching bands of cyanido groups in the FT-IR spectra of C1-C4 indicated the assets of terminal and end cyanido groups. The antibacterial activities of C1-C4 were tested with nine Gram negative and six Gram positive bacteria. The most efficient antibacterial activity of complexes was observed at 1000 µg/ml-1 concentration. Anticancer activity was tested using HeLa cell line and MTT test. The studied cyanide complexes have been shown to decrease the viability of HeLa cells with IC50 values 14.86, 6.5, 7.2 and 19.2 µg/ml for C1, C2, C3 and C4 complex, respectively.

2-Amino-4,6,7,8-tetrahydrothiopyrano[3,2-b]pyran-3-carbonitrile 5,5-dioxide VP-4535 as an antimicrobial agent selective toward methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus

V. Palchykov1*, N. Manko2, N. Finiuk2, N. Pokhodylo3*

1Research Institute of Chemistry and Geology, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine;
2Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine;
3Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: pokhodylo@gmail.com; palchikoff82@gmail.com

Received: 01 August 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

The antibacterial activity of 2-amino-4,6,7,8-tetrahydrothiopyrano[3,2-b]pyran-3-carbonitrile 5,5-dioxide toward five key ESKAPE pathogenic bacteria, methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 700603), Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC 19606), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) was evaluated. The antifungal activity was studied­ towards pathogenic fungal strains Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) and Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii (ATCC 208821). Compound VP-4535 bearing 5-methylindolin-2-one motif possessed the highest antibacterial activity and excellent selectivity toward methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus but was inactive against non-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. The compound in therapeutic concentration was safe to human red blood cells, human lymphocytes, HaCaT, Balb/c 3T3 and HEK-293 cells.

Developmental diet defines metabolic traits in larvae and adult Drosophila

O. M. Strilbytska1*, U. V. Semaniuk1, N. I. Burdyliyk1, V. Bubalo2, O. V. Lushchak1,3*

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology and Mutagenesis, L. I. Medved’s Research Center of Preventive Toxicology, Food and Chemical Safety, MHU, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Research and Development University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 04 October 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

The influence of the developmental nutrition on adult metabolism and overall performance becomes a hot topic of modern evolutionary biology. We used fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and experimental nutrition media composed of different sucrose content (S) and dry yeast content (Y): 0S:2Y, 20S:2Y or 0S:5Y, 20S:5Y to show that the developmental nutrition conditions define metabolism in larvae and adults. The level of glucose, glycogen, triglycerids and total lipids in the larvae and flies body were measured with the diagnostic assay kits. We found that individuals developed on either low-yeast or high-sugar diet showed delayed developmental rate. When kept on the diets with high sucrose content the larvae and adult flies had lower weight and higher amount of lipids as energy reserves. Restriction of dry yeast content in the diet of larvae led to a decrease in glycogen storage and protein levels in larvae and adult flies. The results obtained indicate that the metabolic traits revealed in adult flies are the result of nutrition during development and may be associated with mechanisms of organisms adaptation to the developmental nutritional conditions.

Proteins oxidative modification and antioxidant enzymes activity in the liver mitochondria of rats under laser irradiation and administration of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

O. V. Ketsa*, M. O. Zelinska, M. M. Marchenko

Fedkovich Chernovtsy National University, Chernovtsy, Ukraine;
*e-mail: o.ketsa@chnu.edu.ua

Received: 12 August 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

The effect of laser irradiation of rats combined with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) administration on the proteins oxidative modification and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver was investigated. Animals were irradiated with a 650 nm laser diode in the abdomen daily for 4 min at the distance of 10 cm from the skin surface. ω-3 PUFA were administered per os at a daily dose of 120 mg/kg of the body weight. Fatty acids in the fish oil were identified by gas chromatography. Animals were divided into five groups (12 animals in each group): I – intact rats (control); II – rats exposed to the daily laser irradiation for 7 or 14 days ; III – rats that received ω-3 PUFA two hours after irradiation; IV – rats that received ω-3 PUFA two hours before irradiation; V – rats that received ω-3 PUFA for 7 days before irradiation. The mitochondrial fraction of rat liver was obtained by differential centrifugation. The increase in the content of protein carbonyl derivatives and a decrease of protein thiol groups in the liver mitochondrial fraction were detected after seven-day laser irradiation of rats. As the duration of irradiation increases, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was decreased, indicating a depletion of mitochondrial antioxidant reserves. No antioxidant effect was observed when ω-3 PUFA were administrated after laser irradiation and a slight antioxidant effect was shown when ω-3 PUFA were administrated two hours before irradiation. Preliminary seven-day administration ω-3 PUFA before laser irradiation was the most effective, as it reduced the level of protein carbonyl derivatives and O2•--generation, increased proteins SH-groups content and antioxidant enzymes activity.

Systemic inflammation biomarkers in 6-OHDA- and LPS-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats

Zh. Oliynyk*, M. Rudyk, V. Svyatetska, T. Dovbynchuk, G. Tolstanova, L. Skivka

ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: ojankin@yahoo.com

Received: 14 December 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

Hematological and immunological markers of systemic inflammation were studied in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Experiments were carried out on adult male Wistar rats: 1 – intact animals; 2 – sham-operated animals and 3 – 6-OHDA- and LPS-lesioned animals. PD development was confirmed by the results of behavioral testing (apomorphine test, open field test) and immunohistochemical detection of the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Hematological indices (complete blood count and differential leukocyte count (DLC)) were examined using hematological analyser. Immunological indices included phenotypic (CD206 and CD80/86) and metabolic (oxidative metabolism and phagocytic activity) characteristics of circulating monocytes (Mo) and granulocytes (Gr), which were determined by flow cytometry, as well as plasma levels of C-reactive protein, which were determined by ELISA. LPS-induced PD was associated with neutrophilia, 1.9 times increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, 3 times increased platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and 3 times increased systemic immune inflammation index as compared to intact animals. Functional profile of circulating phagocytes from LPS-lesioned animals was characterized by the pro-inflammtory metabolic shift, as was indicated by 5 times increased oxidative metabolism indices and up-regulated CD80/86 expression along with decreased phagocytic activity and CD206 expression. 6-OHDA-lesioned rats demonstrated decreased DLC indices as compared to intact and sham-operated rats. Functional profile of circulating phagocytes in this model was characterized by anti-inflammatory shift. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that stereotaxic LPS-induced PD is appropriate rodent model for the study of systemic inflammation which is inherent for the disease pathophysiology.