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In memory of O. S. Mikosha

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019

XIІ Ukrainian Biochemical Congress (30 September – 4 October 2019, Ternopil)

Kosterin S.O., Matyshevska O.P., Danilova V.M., Grigorieva M.V.

The contribution of the Nobel laureates to the study of lipid metabolism and its regulation. F. Lynen, K. Bloch, S. Bergström, B. Samuelsson, J. Vane, M. Brown, J. Goldstein

O. P. Matyshevska, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 16 October  2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

The aim of this work was to analyze the experimental achievements in the field of biochemical science, such as the structure and metabolism of lipids. Since the early 1960s, there has been a real breakthrough in the study of intermediate lipid metabolism and its regulation, which has been marked not only by the award of a number of Nobel Prizes, but also by the formation of clinical lipidology as a section of metabology. The discoveries made by Feodor Lynen and Konrad Bloch helped clarify the key role of cholesterol in the development of atherosclerosis and heart attacks. The discoveries of Sune Bergström and Bengt Samuelsson have given impetus to a number of studies on the biological functions of prostaglandins. Humanity should be grateful to English pharmacologist John Robert Vane for discovering prostacyclin and for the important role he played in understanding the ability of aspirin to block the production of prostaglandins  from arachidonic acid. Joseph Goldstein and Michael Brown have made a fundamental contribution to the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the body. They studied hypercholesterolemia, in particular a form of hereditary disease characteri­zed by high levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood, in which atherosclerotic deposits are formed in the cells of the blood vessels. Thanks to fundamental research of all the above-mentioned nobelians, achievements in such fields as genetics of family hyperchesterolemia, regulation of the functional state of arteries and microvessels, prevention of atherosclerosis, and other vascular complications are generally recognized today.

Allelic polymorphisms of DNA repairing genes as markers of resistance to asbestos-containing aerosols

T. A. Andrushchenko1, S. V. Goncharov2, V. E. Dosenko2,
D. O. Stroy2, K. E. Ishchejkin3

1SI “Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv;
2Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava;
e-mail: imp-cys@ukr.net

Received: 14 March 2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

We studied the frequency distribution of DNA repairing genes allelic polymorphisms in the occupational group of asbestos-cement plants workers (n = 95). The aim of the work was to determine the probable molecular genetic markers of resistance to the development of bronchopulmonary pathology under the action of chrysotile-asbestos-containing dust. In 46 workers with chronic forms of bronchopulmonary pathology and 49 workers of the same professions without chronic diseases of the respiratory system, allelic polymorphisms XPD (rs13181, rs799793), ERCC1 (rs11615), XRCC3 (rs861539), XRCC1 (rs25487), ATM (rs664677), XRCC7 (rs7003908) and MLH1 (rs1799977) were determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. It was established that XRCC1•G/A (rs25487) (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.18–1.10; P = 0.050; χ2 = 3.73); MLH1•A/A (rs1799977) (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.71; P = 0.003; χ2 = 8.75) genotypes contribute to the resistance to bronchopulmonary pathology development, while XPD•Asn/Asn (rs799793) (OR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.75–2.77; P = 0.001; χ2 = 6.62); XRCC1•A/A (rs25487) (OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.23–2.43; P = 0.040; χ2 = 3.92); ATM•T/T (rs664677) (OR = 3.47; 95% CI: 1.01–12.51; P = 0.020; χ2 = 4.98); MLH1•A/G (rs1799977) (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.17–7.49; P = 0.010; χ2 = 6.42) genotypes were found to be associated with the risk of respiratory disease development. The obtained results show interconnection between certain alleles of DNA repair genes and the risk of bronchopulmonary pathology development under the influence of industrial aerosols, including asbestos-containing ones.

Corvitin modulates the content of lipids in rat liver bile

T. V. Vovkun1, P. I. Yanchuk1, L. Ya. Shtanova1,
S. P. Veselsky1, N. B. Filimonova1, I. V. Komarov2

1ESC “Institute of Biology and Мedicine”, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine
2“Institute of High Technologies
”, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: shtanova@ukr.net

Received: 23 March 2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

Quercetin (QUE) and its water-soluble form сorvitin are medicinally important members of the fla­vonoid family and the most prominent dietary antioxidants. Numerous pharmacological effects of quercetin include protection against diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disea­ses. Corvitin modulates liver blood flow but its effects on liver lipid metabolism have not been understood. We investigated the influence of corvitin (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) on the formation and secretion of cholesterol (Chol), cholesterol esters (EChol), phospholipids (PLs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and triglycerides (TGs) into the bile. Secreted bile was collected during 2.5 h of the experiment. Lipid fractions of the bile were separated by thin-layer chromatography. We defined that administration of corvitin caused a significant (P < 0.05–0.001) increase in levels of all studied lipid components of bile. At a dose of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg corvitin increased bile content of Chol, PLs and FFAs,and at a  dose of 10 mg/kg had the largest effect on the total production of EChol and TGs. We concluded that corvitin activates the liver lipids metabolism and processes of bile formation.

Hydrogen peroxide as a signal mediator at inducing heat resistance in wheat seedlings by putrescine

Yu. E. Kolupaev1,2, A. I. Kokorev1, T. O. Yastreb1, E. I. Horielova1

1Dokuchaev Kharkiv National Agrarian University, Ukraine,
e-mail: plant_biology@ukr.net;
2Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine

Received: 27 May 2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

Polyamines are multifunctional stress metabolites of plants. However, information on the effect of exo­genous polyamines on plant resistance to high temperatures is contradictory, and it remains unclear which signal mediators are involved in the realization of their physiological effects. The possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide as a mediator under the action of exogenous diamine putrescine on the resistance of etiolated wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) to hyperthermia (10-minute heating at 46°C) and the functioning of antioxidant system was investigated. It was established that the treatment of seedlings with putrescine in 0.25–2.5 mM concentrations caused a significant increase in their heat resistance. In response to the putrescine effect, a transient increase in the H2O2 content occurred in the root cells. This effect was eliminated by treatment of seedlings with a diamine oxidase inhibitor aminoguanidine and an NADPH oxidase inhibitor imidazole. These inhibitors, as well as the scavenger of hydrogen peroxide dimethylthiourea (DMTU), mitigated the effects of increased heat resistance of seedlings and increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase caused by putrescine. Under the influence of DMTU and imidazole, but not aminoguanidine, the effect of increasing the activity of guaiacol peroxidase in the roots of seedlings treated with putrescine was eliminated. The conclusion was made about the role of hydrogen peroxide and the possible participation of diamine oxidase and NADPH oxidase in its formation during the implementation of the stress-protective effect of putrescine on wheat seedlings.

Fatty acids composition of Bacillus subtilis ONU551 lipids

Т. V. Gudzenko, O. V. Voliuvach, O. G. Gorshkova,
А. М. Ostapchuk, V. O. Ivanytsia

Оdesa National I.I. Mechnykov University, Ukraine;
e-mail: tgudzenko@ukr.net

Received: 11 March 2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

The aim of the study was to determine the cellular lipids fatty acid composition for  identification of the Bacillus subtilis ONU551 strain bacteria, which is a phenol destructor. Fatty acids analysis of B. subtilis ONU551 strain was performed using an automatic system for microorganisms’ identification MIDI Sherlock (MIDI, USA) based on gas chromatograph Agilent 7890. Chromatograms analysis showed that the fatty acid spectrum of the strain B. subtilis ONU551 consisted predominately of branched structural isomers of saturated acids: 13-methyltetradecanoic (15:0 iso; 34.72%) and 12-methyltetradecanoic (15:0 anteiso; 33.72%) acids. The total content of the branched saturated fatty acids was 88.16% – 14:0 iso (0.52%), 15:0 iso (34.72%), 15:0 anteiso (33.72%), 16:0 iso (1.85%), 17:0 iso (7.11%), 17:0 anteiso (10.24%). The saturated fatty acids of the normal structure were also detected – 12:0 (0.36%), 14:0 (0.28%), 16:0 (1.30%). No 2- and 3-hydroxy acids and no cyclic fatty acids were detected in the fatty acid profile of B. subtilis ONU551 strain. Unsaturated fatty acid isomers – 15:1 w5c (1.85%), 16:1 w11c (1.21%), 16:1 w7c alcohol (1.08%), 17:1 iso w10c (3.18%), ∑17:1 iso I/anteiso B (2.57%) were shown to be the distinctive biomarkers of the B. subtilis ONU551 strain. According to the fatty acid profile analysis with MIDI Sherlock system, the studied strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis with high level of similarity index (0.563).

Effect of selenium and nano-selenium on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

M. M. A. Shafaee1, H. S. Mohamed2, S. A. Ahmed1, M. A. Kandeil3

1Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt;
2Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Beni-Suef University, Egypt;
3Biochemistry department, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt;
e-mail: husseinshaban@science.bsu.edu.eg

Received: 05 July 2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

Cisplatin is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic agent useful in the treatment of several forms of cancer, but its use is limited due to the undesirable side effects of nephrotoxicity. Most of the previous researches found a positive effect of using selenium as an antioxidant on the toxicity of cisplatin during short term administrations  although the recommended dose regimen of cisplatin in chemotherapy is multiple successive administration every three or four weeks depending on the type of the tumor. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long term usage of selenium or nano-selenium on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Forty rats were divided into equal four groups, 1st group as a control injected with normal saline, 2nd group injected with cisplatin 6 mg/kg every 21 days for 70 days (experimental period), 3rd group injected with cisplatin 6 mg/kg plus intramuscular injection 0.1 mg/kg selenium in the form of sodium selenite every 3 days during the experimental period, the 4th group injected with cisplatin 6 mg/kg plus intramuscular injection 0.1 mg/kg nano-selenium every 3 days during the experimental period. The results indicated that selenium or nano-selenium exerted an antioxidant effect through increasing the level of antioxidant enzymes in both serum and kidney tissue, while, it shows a negative effect on kidney function through increasing serum urea and creatinine concentrations and causing abnormal morphology of kidney tissue for rats treated with cisplatin during experimental period.