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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022 was awar­ded jointly to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharplessfor the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry”.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2022

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2022 was awarded to Svante Pääbofor his discoveries concerning the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution”.

Localization and level of proapoptotic protein regulators in a rat lung tissue during development of acute experimental bronchopneumonia

D. S. Ziablitsev1*, A. O. Tykhomyrov2, O. O. Dyadyk3,
S. V. Kolesnikova1, S. V. Ziablitsev1

1Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 20 July 2022; Revised: 13 September 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

Apoptosis plays an important role in the development of acute inflammatory lung injury (AILI) and its consequences, which can be realized in different cells with distinct intensity and rate. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and expression intensity of apoptosis markers in the lungs of rats in the AILI model with endotracheal introduction of capron thread and LPS. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies against Bax and caspase-3 proteins. It was shown that Bax level increased significantly with the peak on the 7th day. The second peak of Bax 40 dimeric form was noted on the 21st day. The level of both pro-caspase-3 and active caspase-3 was also dramatically increased with a maximum on the 5th day and the second peak of active caspase-3 content was observed on the 21st day. These changes reflected the activation of apoptosis in key trigger periods of AILI during the development of exudative hemorrhagic pneumonia and subsequent fibrotic remodeling of the lungs.

Studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription. Roger Kornberg the Nobel prize in Chemistry 2006

O. P. Matyshevska*, V. M. Danylova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiyv;

Received: 18 October 2022; Revised: 25 October 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006 was awarded to an American biochemist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University Roger Kornberg for his fundamental research on the molecular mechanisms of copying genetic information in eukaryotic cells. What are these molecular mechanisms? How is transcription complex formed and what is its structure? R. Kornberg devoted tirelessly 20 years of his work to answer these questions. The article is focused on his research and also describes Roger Kornberg’s life and scientific career.

Black tea and coffee impact on steroid hormones status in young men

M. F. Amirova*, A. R. Dadashova, E. E. Huseynova, I. A. Kerimova,
Sh. I. Hasanova, F. E. Guliyeva, S. R. Guliyeva,
R. R. Rahimova, G. R. Vahabova

Biochemistry Department, Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku, Azerbaijan;

Received: 12 June 2022; Revised: 04 August 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

Tea and coffee alkaloids affect the hormonal status of the body. There are reports about the effect of caffeine on the body under stress, but nearly absent reports on the effect of tea and coffee alkaloids at rest. The aim of this work was to determine whether there is a significant difference in testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the blood of young men before and after drinking indicated beverages. The work was carried out on 21 healthy young males that were tested for blood cortisol levels before and after drinking tea or coffee on an empty stomach. The young men were divided into two groups: the first group comprised those whose cortisol levels increased after taking a single dose of tea, the second group – whose cortisol decreased. The third group comprised persons who took a single dose of strong-grain coffee. In addition, adrenaline and testosterone levels were determined as a hormonal panel. Our pioneer investigation found that coffee causes a significant decrease in cortisol levels at rest, but tea consumption by coffee drinkers leads to a more pronounced decrease in the cortisol levels than coffee.

Distribution and polymorphism of enzymes involved in antioxidant protection and xenobiotics biotransformation in the mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

V. А. Toptikov, I. Yu. Chubyk*, S. V. Chebotar

Odesa National Mechnуkov University, Ukraine;

Received: 18 July 2022; Revised: 17 October 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

The aim of the work was to determine the tissue distribution, activity and polymorphism of 13 enzymes involved in antioxidative protection and xenobiotics biotransformation in a five bivalve mussel organs (hepatopancreas, ctenidia, mantle, leg, adductor muscles). Iso-allozyme analysis was performed by electrophoresis, correlation relationships between the studied enzymes in the whole mussel body were carried out using Spearman’s correlation analysis. It was found that all studied enzymes are polymorphic, each organ differed in the level of enzyme activity and a set of multiple forms. The coordinated functioning of protective enzymes in various mussel organs was demonstrated.

Assessing the in vitro anti-glycation efficacy of vitamins A, C, D, E

N. P. Dalbanjan1, A. J. Kadapure1, P. Huded2,
V. B. Chachadi1, S. Nayaka3, Praveen Kumar S.K.1*

1Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India;
2FS and AQCL Department CSIR-CFTRI Mysore 570020, Karnataka, India;
3Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India;

Received: 27 June 2022; Revised: 31 August 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

Accreted sugars in the blood react with protein’s amino group via Schiff base to form Amadori compounds. Further, these compounds execute irreversible chemical modifications generating advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The current study investigated the effects of vitamins in a glycation-prone in vitro environment. Glycation model was reached by incubating BSA with 0.1 M glucose/fructose in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline. Intrinsic (tyrosine/tryptophan) and AGEs fluorescence was monitored with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Ellman’s test depicted that native BSA contains more free thiol groups than glycated BSA. It was shown that BSA is more susceptible to glycation in the presence of fructose than glucose, and vitamin D followed by vitamin E and A can significantly rescue the BSA from glycation progression.

Lipid parameters in the blood of coronary artery diseases patients depending on age and dietary components: a case study

S. Prasad1, M. K. Mishra2*, A. K. Yadav2

1Department of Biochemistry, K. J. Somaiya Medical College and Research Mumbai, India;
2Department of Biochemistry, Shri Ramakrishna Institute of Medical Science and Sanaka Hospitals , Durgapur, West Bengal, India;

Received: 19 March 2022; Revised: 13 September 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of mortality worldwide and is defined as an elevated level of atherogenic cholesterol and low levels of HDL cholesterol. However, very few studies have been conducted in India on the association of blood lipid profile with age and diet. The study aims to estimate lipid parameters in the blood of CAD patients aged 40-70 years on different diets. Lipid parameters were analyzed by enzymatic method on EM-200 fully automated Biochemistry analyzer. The data obtained showed that the majority of patients who suffered from CAD were between the age group of 51-60 years. Patients with CAD had altered lipid profiles, with higher levels of serum TGs, total cholesterol and low levels of HDL. Vegetarians have been found to have reduced lipid risk factors for coronary heart disease compared to patients on a mixed diet.

Fatty acid profile of the liver lipids under acute fungicide action and intake of a biologically active preparation in rats

S. V. Khyzhnyak*, S. V. Midyk, A. O. Velinska,
О. V. Arnauta, L. Н. Kalachniuk

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 18 August 2022; Revised: 24 October 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

The widespread use of fungicides in agriculture leads to a negative consequences for both humans and the environment. The acute effect of fungicides containing tebuconazole alone or in combination with triadimefon on fatty acid (FAs) composition of the total lipids in the liver of rats was studied. FAs content was analyzed by gas chromatography with the use of flame ionization detector. The results obtained indicate that the acute effect of triazole fungicides one-time oral administration to rats is characterized by toxic reactions and is accompanied by the total liver lipids FAs profile redistribution, similar for the studied fungicides. In particular, the reduction in the total content of monounsaturated FAs (by 26% – 37%) and in the ω3/ω6 ratio was observed. It was demonstrated that the subsequent two-week introduction of the preparation based on Milk thistle seeds oil extract had a positive effect and improved the FAs profile of lipids in dynamics after fungicide intake.

Inhibition of plasma membrane Сa(2+),Mg(2+)-АТРase by сalixarene sulfonylamidines. Structure-activity relationship

O. A. Shkrabak1*, T. O. Veklich1, R. V. Rodik2,
V. I. Kalchenko2, S. O. Kosterin1

1Muscle Biochemistry Department, Palladin Institute of Biochemistry,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Phosphoranes Chemistry Department, Institute of Organic Chemistry,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv

Received: 07 September 2022; Revised: 26 October 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line:  14 November 2022

Previously we have already shown that tetrasulfonylamidinecalixarene C-90 inhibited plasma membrane Са2+,Mg2+-АТРаse of smooth muscle cells selectively to other ATPases of plasma membrane. To inhance the inhibitory effect of calixarenes several alkoxycalixarene sulfonylamidines structurally similar to calixa­rene C-90 were synthesized and their effects on the mentioned enzyme activity, the level of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and hydrodynamic diameter of isolated smooth muscle cells were checked. It was shown that sulfonylamidino groups are crucial for Са2+,Mg2+-АТРаse inhibition, the efficiency of inhibition depends on their quantity and spatial orientation at the upper rim of calixarene macrocycle. Introduction of phenyl or tert-butyl groups into the upper rim and of long alkyl chains into the lower rim led to only slightl increase of inhibition efficiency. The inhibitory effect of studied calixarenes on Са2+,Mg2+-АТРаse correlated with effects on cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and hydrodynamic diameter of smooth muscle cells. The obtained results are important for creation of more effective and selective inhibitors of plasma membrane Са2+,Mg2+-АТРаse as regulators of smooth muscle contractility.