Category Archives: Uncategorized

Stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue as an alternative source of cellular material for regenerative medicine

A. S. Sultanova, O. Ya. Bespalova, O. Yu. Galkin

National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”;
e-mail: tmb@kpi.ua

Received: 06 August 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2020

Adipose tissue is the most convenient source of cellular material for regenerative medicine as it can be obtained in significant quantities via cosmetic liposuction, lipoaspiration of subcutaneous fat or by excision of fat deposits. Adipose tissue consists of adipocytes and cells, which are the part of the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF). Different cell populations can be isolated from SVF, among which the population of adipose tissue stem cells (adipose-derived stem cells, ADSC) is especially important for regenerative medicine. SVF can be obtained relatively easily from adipose tissue (adipose tissue is an alternative to bone marrow in terms of being a source of stem cells) and used to treat various pathologies. Recent studies show that SVF not only has a therapeutic effect similar to that of ADSC, but in some cases is even more effective. The article provides the analysis of the main methods of SVF obtainment, characteristics of SVF cellular composition, its potential for use in clinical medicine and its main advantages over other sources of cellular material, including­ ADSC cultured in vitro, for regenerative medicine.

Protein intake and loss of proteostasis in the eldery

A. N. Kirana1, E. Prafiantini1, N. S. Hardiany2,3*

1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia – Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia;
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia;
3Center of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress Studies, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia;
*e-mail: novi.silvia@ui.ac.id

Received: 29 June 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2020

Ageing is a process of declining bodily function and a major risk factor of chronic diseases. The declining bodily function in ageing can cause loss of proteostasis (protein homeostasis), which is a balance between protein synthesis, folding, modification and degradation. For the elderly, adequate protein intake is necessary to prevent sarcopenia, frailty, fracture and osteoporosis as well as reduced resistance to infection. However, increasing the protein intake can enhance the risk of oxidized protein formation, loss of proteostasis and degenerative disorder occurrence. On the other hand, several studies show that protein restriction would increase longevity. The aim of this review was to explain the importance of determining the right amount and composition of protein intake for the elderly. Oxidative stress and molecular mechanism of proteostasis loss in ageing cells as well as its suppression pathway by protein restriction are discussed in this review.

A vicious circle between oxidative stress and cytokine storm in acute respiratory distress syndrome pathogenesis at COVID-19 infection

G. H. Meftahi1, Z. Bahari1,2, Z. Jangravi3,4*, M. Iman3,5

1Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
2Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
3Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
5Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
*e-mail: jangraviz89@gmail.com

Received: 31 August 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2020

In early December 2019, the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Since then, it has propagated rapidly and turned into a major global crisis due to the high virus spreading. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is considered as a defining cause of  the death cases. Cytokine storm and oxidative stress are the main players of ARDS development during respiratory virus infections. In this review, we discussed molecular mechanisms of a fatal vicious circle between oxidative stress and cytokine storm during COVID-19 infection. We also described how aging can inflame the vicious circle.

Coronavirus viroporins: structure and function

I. Zaloilo1, Y. Rud2, О. Zaloilo2, L. Buchatskyi2

1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2ESC Institute of Biology and Medicine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: iridolpb@gmail.com

Received: 08 July 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2020

Viroporins are involved in viral pathogenesis, play an important role in the morphogenesis of virions and ensure their release from the infected cell. These proteins are potentially promising as possible targets for the regulation of virus reproduction. The literature data on the current understanding of coronavirus viroporins functioning are summarized in the review. Special attention is focused on specific structural features that determine the functional ability of these proteins. The basic principles of viroporins localization in the cell and their influence on the coronavirus life cycle are considered.

Scientists’ pursuit for SARS-COV-2 coronavirus: strategies against pandemic

S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: svk@biochem.kiev.ua

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which in 2020 became pandemic and a global threat. As of January 10, 2021, 218 countries and territories have reported 90.783 million confirmed cases and 1.945 million deaths. The aim of this article is to briefly review the numerous information linked to this virus and the COVID-19 disease and to give an analysis and landscape of appropriate problems. In particular, to acquaint with information on the coronavirus biology, its origin, structure and ways of infection; on the features of COVID-19 disease, diagnostics, the use of pharmaceuticals for the disease treatment and the formation of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Particular attention was given to the vaccines’ development and the effectiveness of anti-epidemic measures (quarantine). The use of mathe­matical modeling of the epidemic process and the prospects of quarantine ending is also discussed. Finally, the data relevant to the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant VOC 2020 12/1 are presented with special attention to its possible impact on the virus diagnostics and vaccination.

The discovery of the DNA double helix, or the revolution that ushered in the era of molecular biology (Nobel Prize 1962)

O. P. Matyshevska*, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiyv;
*e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 19 June 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

The 1950s were marked by groundbreaking discoveries in the research of the molecular structure of DNA. The chronology of awarding Nobel Prizes to the authors of these discoveries, did not always coincide with the chronology of announcing the results of their research. J. Watson and F. Crick published their short paper on the discovery of DNA structure, which rocked the scientific world, in Nature in 1953, but received the Nobel Prize together with M. Wilkins only 9 years later. The discovery of the DNA chemical structure is recognized as one of the greatest biological discoveries of the twentieth century. This landmark scientific breakthrough began the development of a new field of the life sciences: molecular biology.

Interleukin-8 level in the blood of rats with experimental osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism

D. S. Nosivets

SI “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”;
e-mail: dsnosivets@ukr.net

Received: 9 May 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

In the study, the level of interleukin-8 in the blood serum of rats with experimental model of osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism under the influence of NSAID s and paracetamol was estimated. The experiments were performed on 75 white nonlinear rats of both sexes. Experimental osteoarthritis was induced by single intra-articular administration of 0.1 ml of monoiodoacetic acid solution into the knee joint. Experimental hypothyroidism was reconstructed by enteral administration of 0.02% carbimazole solution, given with a drinking­ ration for 6 weeks. On the 42nd day of the experiment, the animals were divided into 14 groups and drug administration began daily for 5 days. The serum level of interleukin-8 was estimated on 42 and 47 days of the experiment by specific ELISA kits. A significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) of the elevated cytokine level under the influence of pharmacotherapy was revealed. According to the degree of influence on degenerative-dystrophic process in the knee joint, the investigated drugs can be arranged as follows: diclofenac sodium > ibuprofen > nimesulide = meloxicam > celecoxib > paracetamol. The results obtained showed that the level of interleukin-8 could be used as an indicator  of  non-steroidal drugs and paracetamol anti-inflammatory activity under  experimental osteoarthritis and hypothyroidism.

Research on diet features of patients with hypothyroidism

O. Oliynyk

Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, Poland;
e-mail: Alexanderoliynyk8@gmail.com

Received: 17 April 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Studies on the relationship between dietary features and hypothyroidism pathogenesis are highly relevant­. The aim of this research was to study the dietary features of patients with hypothyroidism and to determine the possible impact of patients’ food preferences on the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism. We examined 400 women of Polish nationality aged 19-28 years living in the district of Biała Podlaski of the Lublin Voivodeship of Poland who consider themselves healthy.  Blood levels of free (FT3) and total (T3) triiodothyronine, free (FT4) and total (T4) thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the examined women’s diet was determined using questionnaires and nutritional tables. It was revealed, that the prevalence of hypothyroidism among the female subjects was 3.5%. Women with reduced thyroid function were shown to consume 3.78 times less iodine, 2.97 times (P < 0.001) less sodium chloride (table salt), and 1.47 times (P < 0.001) less proteins than those who had normal thyroid function. In addition, women with hypothyroidism consume  2.25 times (P < 0.001) more strumogenic. It is concluded that the use of such the diet could cause a secondary reduction in thyroid function with further development of the hypothyroidism.

Exometabolites of endospore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus identified by genomic-metabolomic profiling

А. M. Ostapchuk, М. D. Shtenikov*, V. О. Ivanytsia

Odesa I. I. Mechnykov National University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: shtenikovnik@gmail.com

Received: 30 March 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

The set of unique bioactive metabolites produced by marine bacilli is already known but the metabolomic of these bacteria  is underinvestigated. The aim of this work was to carry out  the comparative analysis of metabolomic and genomic traits of Bacillus velezensis ONU 553, Bacillus pumilus ONU 554, Bacillus subtilis ONU 559 strains isolated from Black Sea bottom sediments. Organic extracts of each strain were analyzed using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. General annotation of genomes was performed using PATRIC, search for secretory signals in the primary structure of selected proteins with using Signal IP analysis.  The search of biosynthetic gene clusters was performed using antiSMASH, PRISM 3 and BiG-SCAPEs, the reconstruction of metabolites- with PRISM 3 and TransATor analyzes. The study allowed to found and identified 90, 33 and 43 metabolites in the strains Bacillus velezensis ONU 553, Bacillus pumilus ONU 554 and  Bacillus subtilis ONU 559 respectively. The compounds found in metabolome were subdivided into two groups: those which are known members of the genus Bacillus and those new to both genus and prokaryotes in general. Among the secondary metabolites of studied strains the variants of the nonribosomal peptide class  surfactins (anhteisoC16-surfactin, surfactin B2-me ester), gageostatins, fengycins and amicoumacins, and the secreted protease inhibiting pentapeptide GPFPI were identified. The biosynthetic clusters of lipopeptides of the pumilacidin subgroup and amicoumacin antibiotic AI-77A were identified for the first time with the use of  bioinformatic tools. The data obtained replenish the  understanding of the marine bacilli biosynthetic potential.

Honeybee chitosan-melanin complex: isolation and investigation of antimicrobial activity

M. Lootsik1, N. Manko1, O. Gromyko2,
S. Tistechok2, M. Lutsyk (Jr.)3, R. Stoika1*

1Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
2Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
3Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: stoika.rostyslav@gmail.com

Received: 4 May 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Antimicrobial activity of marine crustaceans chitosans is well studied and is widely used in medicine, while chitosans of insects are poorly investigated in this aspect, though they might also be of practical significance. The aim of this study was to isolate and purify chitosan-melanin complex (CMC) from the honeybee­ corpses and to estimate its antimicrobial activity. Antibacterial activity of CMC was evaluated by MTT test, antifungal activity towards Candida albicans was estimated by calculating colony forming units (CFU method). The modified method of CMC isolation and purification was described which differs from the known analogs in deacetylation of chitin-melanin complex by its hydrolysis in 40% NaOH without previous melanin elimination and in further purification of CMC by differential solubilization at distinct pH values. The anti-microbial activity of CMC was characterized by prevalence of candidacidal effect, IC50 towards laboratory strain of C. albicans was 50 μg/ml. The ranking of studied bacteria sensitivity to the CMC action decreased as: E. coli > St. aureus > Ps. aeruginosa. It is suggested that CMC isolated from the honeybee corpses might be a perspective constituent of medicinal compositions for treatment of lesions caused by C. albicans infection.