Category Archives: Uncategorized

The role of hypoxia-inducible factors in the development of chronic pathology

N. S. Shevchenko, N. V. Krutenko*, T. V. Zimnytska, K. V. Voloshyn

V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Department of Pediatrics No. 2,Ukraine;

Received: 13 October 2020; Accepted: 07 July 2021

This review highlights the current understanding of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) role as regulators of oxygen-dependent reactions and inducers of genes expression in  human organism. The focus is on the most significant relationships between the activation or inhibition of the HIFs intracellular system and development of the inflammatory process in various organs, chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, osteoarticular system, kidneys as well as  hematological, endocrine and metabolic disorders.

Chlorine-binding structures: role and organization in different proteins

R. Yu. Marunych*, O. O. Hrabovskyi, G. K. Bereznytskyj,
L. V. Pyrogova, G. K. Gogolinskaya, Ye. M. Makogonenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 29 September 2020; Accepted: 07 July 2021

The review focuses on chloride-binding structures in the proteins of bacteria, plants, viruses and animals. The structure and amino acid composition of the chloride-binding site and its role in the functioning of structural, regulatory, transport, receptor, channel proteins, transcription factors and enzymes are considered. Data on the important role of chloride-binding structures and chloride anions in the polymerization of fibrin are presented.

A legend in his own lifetime: double Nobel prize winner Linus Pauling

T. V. Danylova1*, S. V. Komisarenko2

1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 19 April 2021; Accepted: 17 May 2021

Linus Pauling – a prominent American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator – was one of the scientists-humanists whose life echoed the key milestones of the 20th century and who could be compared with Leonardo da Vinci in terms of the breadth of interests and creative achievements. He is one of the four scientists to have won two Nobel Prizes (the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954; the Nobel Peace Prize 1962) and the only one to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes. As a result of his long-lasting research, Pauling formulated a theory of structure and function of proteins; studied the effect of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin on its magnetic properties, laid the foundations for structural analysis of protein molecules, made a contribution to the study of antibodies. Believing that people had to develop a new type of thinking for the sake of the survival of humanity, Linus Pauling spoke out strongly against nuclear testing, and the contemporary world is indebted to Pauling for his courage and moral leadership in reminding us about the dangers of nuclear war. The versatile innovative activities of the brilliant scientist and humanist Linus Pauling, his unconventional personality, and the huge scientific heritage have left a deep mark in the history of humankind.

Discovery of cell apoptosis regulation genes: Sydney Brenner, John E. Sulston and H. Robert Horvitz (The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002)

M. V. Grigorieva*, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Biochemistry Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 24 Nobember 2020; Accepted: 23 April 2021

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002 was awarded to Sydney Brenner, Howard Robert Horvitz and John Edward Sulston for their discoveries concerning “genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death”. The scientists­ studied cell division and differentiation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from the fertilized egg to the adult organism. As a result of their studies, key genes regulating organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis) were identified, and corresponding genes were shown to exist in higher species, including humans. These discoveries shed light on the pathogenesis of many diseases and were important for further medical research.

Application of petri nets methodology to determine biophysicochemical parameters of mitochondria functioning

H. V. Danylovych*, A. Yu. Chunikhin, Yu. V. Danylovych, S. O. Kosterin

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 01 Nobember 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2021

With the use of Petri net methodology a mathematical simulation model able to predict simultaneous changes in biophysicochemical parameters of mitochondria functioning was developed. The model allowed to interconnect in time the changes in mitochondria hydrodynamic diameter, electronic transport chain functioning, endogenous fluorescence of adenine nucleotides, DCF fluorescence signal of ROS production and NaN3 effects. It was shown that the calculated values of the studied biophysicalchemical parameters correspond to those obtained experimentally. The model permit to link mitochondrial functional changes and their  structural representation and to optimize significantly experimental procedures.

The indices of thyroid system and metabolism of rats under the influence of nanocomposition based on iodine and citrate

R. S. Fedoruk1, U. I. Tesarivska2, I. I. Kovalchuk1, R. Ja. Iskra1,
M.M. Tsap1*, M. I. Khrabko1, O. I. Koleshchuk1

1Institute of Animal Biology, Nаtional Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
2State Scientific-Research Control Institute of Veterinary Preparations and Feed Additives, Lviv, Ukraine;

Received: 05 June 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2021

The search for a new biologically effective iodine compounds that may have practical use and do not cause toxic effects is relevant. The aim of the research was to examine the influence of nanocomposition based on citric acid – iodine helated compex (I2Citr) on the indices of thyroid system activity and metabolism in the blood serum of young male rats. Rats of the experimental groups received I2Citr with water daily for 40 days at a dose of 24 μg I/kg (1st experimental group) and 240 μg I/kg (2nd experimental group) of the body weight. The level of hormones and antibodies in the blood serum was determined with ELISA. Reduced Tg level and triacylglycerols content and elevated  AntiTg,  AntiTPO levels and Ca and albumin content in the serum of rats in both groups compared to control were observed. It was found that in the serum of rats in the 2nd experimental group the levels of T3, T4 and urea, as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase and AlAT were reduced. No changes in the coefficients of the rats internal organs mass were detected under the action of I2Citr except for the spleen mass, which decreased by about 40% in the rats of 1st group and by 33% – in rats of 2nd group as compared to control. The data obtained indicate modulating influence of I2Citr in a studied doses on thyroid activity without causing toxic effects on animal organism.

NO-synthase activity and nitric oxide content in lymphoid cells of thymus and spleen of rats under conditions of diet-induced obesity

L. Kot*, V. Konopelnyuk, K. Dvorshchenko, V. Vereschaka

ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;

Received: 10 August 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2021

Metabolic disorders under conditions of obesity are known to be accompanied by systemic inflammation and immune system imbalance while nitric oxide (NO) system is one of the main key links in the immune responses regulation. The aim of the research was to evaluate NO-synthase (NOS) activity and NO content in the cells of thymus and spleen of rats with experimental obesity induced by 14 weeks of high-calorie diet. NO content in cell suspensions was determined using Griess reaction, NOS activity was estimated by NADPH++ specific cleavage. It was shown that under conditions of experimental obesity NO content in cells of thymus and spleen as well as NOS activity in the spleen were decreased with  simultaneous increase in both NO content and NOS activity in the serum. The obtained data testify the changes in lymphoid cells functional activity and in organism general adaptive capacity under conditions of obesity.

Sex dependent differences in oxidative stress in the heart of rats with type 2 diabetes

N. I. Gorbenko1*, O. Yu. Borikov2, O. V. Ivanova1, T. V. Kiprych1,
E. V. Taran1, T. I. Gopciy2, Т. S. Litvinova1

1SI “V. Danilevsky Institute for Endocrine Pathology Problems of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kharkiv;
2V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov, Ukraine;.

Received: 17 September 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2021

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is known to double mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in which oxidative stress plays an important role. It is suggested that the impact of diabetes on CVD risk may vary depending on gender. The aim of the study was to assess oxidative stress parameters in the heart of 12 weeks old male and female Wistar rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by high-calorie diet followed by intraperitoneal streptozotocin injections. The level of advanced oxidation protein products, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the isolated heart mitochondria and NADPH-oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity in the post-mitochondrial  supernatant fraction were determined. It was shown that T2DM induced more pronounced oxidative stress confirmed by the increased level of advanced oxidation protein products in the heart mitochondria of males than females. The data obtained indicate that the main reason of oxidative stress in the heart of diabetic males is the activation of non-mitochondrial  sources of reactive oxygen species. While in the heart of diabetic female rats it is the  decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity in mitochondria. These results justify the necessity of gender-specific therapy for the prevention and management of diabetic CVD.

Oxidative stress in the heart of rats exposed to acute intermittent hypobaric hypoxia

S. Dewi1*, M. Sadikin1, W. Mulyawan2

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia;
2Department of Aerophysiology, Lakespra Saryanto, Air Force Indonesian National Army, Jakarta, Indonesia;

Received: 01 October 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2021

It is known that the altitude area causes hypoxic conditions due to the low oxygen partial pressure. This study was conducted to estimate oxidative stress indices in the heart tissue after Wister rats exposure to the acute intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia exposure was simulated by keeping the rats in a hypobaric chamber for 1 min at 35,000 feet altitude. After that the altitude was gradually reduced to 30,000 and 25,000 feet and maitained for 5 min. 25 male Wistar rats were divided into control group and four treatment groups (I-IV), consisting of rats exposed 1, 2, 3 and 4 times to hypobaric hypoxia with a frequency once a week. The animals were removed from the experiment at the  height of 18,000 feet and the heart tissue was obtained. The carbonyl groups and  MDA levels and superoxide dismutase and  catalase activity were exami­ned in the supernatant of the heart tissue homogenate. In the samples of group I, the decrease  in catalase activity with a simultaneous notable increase in carbonyl groups level was observed compared to control. In the samples of groups III and IV, the carbonyl level normalized and the activity of  both antioxidant enzymes increased significantly. It was concluded that the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity can contribute to cardiac tissue adaptive response to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure.

Prooxidant and antioxidant processes in the liver homogenate of healthy and tumor-bearing mice under the action of thiazole derivatives

Ya. R. Shalai1*, M. V. Popovych1, S. M. Mandzynets1,
V. P. Hreniukh1, N. S. Finiuk1,2, A. M. Babsky1

1Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
2Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;

Received: 12 October 2021; Accepted: 17 May 2021

Thiazole derivatives were shown to have toxic effects in vitro on cancer cells of different origin and can be considered as potentially antineoplastic, but their effect on the normal tissues needs to be studied. In this research the newly synthesized thiazole derivatives of N-(5-benzyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-3,5-dimethyl-1-benzo-furan-2-carboxamide (BF1) and 8-methyl-2-Me-7-[trifluoromethyl-phenylmethyl]-pyrazolo [4,3-e] [1,3] thiazolo [3,2-a] pyrimidin-4 (2H)-one (PP2) were used and their effect on the pro- and antioxidant processes after adding in a 1, 10 and 50 μM concentrations to the liver homogenate of healthy and NK/Ly lymphoma-bearing mice was estimated. The level of superoxide radical and TBA-active products as well as catalase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. It was shown that superoxide radical and TBA-active products­ level and catalase activity were significantly higher in the liver of tumor-bearing mice than in the liver of the healthy mice. Neither BF1 no PP2 influenced the studied indices in the liver homogenate of healthy and tumor-bearing animals with the exception that PP2 significantly reduced the level of TBA-positive products in both cases. The data obtained showed that the studied thiazole derivatives did not cause severe liver toxicity in both healthy and tumor-bearing mice.