Tag Archives: choline

Choline derivatives as natural ligands of mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

O. Lykhmus, M. Izmailov, M. Skok*

Department of Molecular Immunology, Palladin Institute of Biochemistry,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: skok@biochem.kiev.ua

Received: 16 March 2023; Revised: 28 April 2023;
Accepted: 05 June 2023; Available on-line: 20 June 2023

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate mitochondria-driven apoptosis; however, their intracellular ligands are unknown. In the present paper, we show that choline and its derivatives (phosphocholine (PC), L-α-glycerophosphocholine (G-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (P-GPC)) dose-dependently influence cytochrome c release from isolated mouse liver mitochondria. Choline inhibited Ca2+-stimulated cytochrome c release, while PC attenuated wortmannin-induced cytochrome c release. Small doses of G-PC and P-GPC (up to 0.1 µM) were protective against either Ca2+ or wortmannin, while larger doses (up to 1 µM) stimulated cytochrome c release by themselves. Choline and PC disrupted interaction of VDAC1, Bax and Bcl-2 with mitochondrial α7 nAChRs and favored their interaction with α9 nAChR subunits. It is concluded that choline metabolites can regulate apoptosis by affecting mitochondrial nAChRs.

Indicators of mineral metabolism and dental status of young rats born from female with methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia

O. Kutelmakh1*, R. Lesyk2,3, Yu. Chumakova4,
S. Bondar1, V. Dronenko1, L. Shkilniak1

1Vinnytsia National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine;
2Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine;
3University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland;
4International Humanitarian University, Odessa, Ukraine;
*e-mail: ahzelo1968vin@i.ua

Received: 12 July 2021; Accepted: 12 November 2021

We assume that the violation of homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and vitamin D level in mothers’ utero causes various abnormalities in offspring, including hard-woven teeth and periodontium impairments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical parameters of blood and alveolar bone homogenates and assess dental status of offspring born from female rats under long-term methionine hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). Clinical, biochemical and morphometric studies were performed on 30 female rats and 281 infantile and early juvenile rats. Serum Hcy levels were determined by competitive immunoassay with electrochemiluminescent detection, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level was estimated  by ELISA. No violation of Hcy serum level was found in rats born from females with long-term methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinaemia. Hyperhomocysteinaemic diet caused by long-term use of methionine reduced the level of total and ionized calcium and phosphates in the blood of pregnant females and their offspring. Elevated levels of homocysteine and decreased vitamin D levels in pregnant females caused a delay in the complete physiological eruption of permanent molars in their offspring. Biochemical changes in the blood, jawbones and the presence of early carious processes in the teeth of young rats, in our opinion, are the result of metabolic disorders in utero caused by hyperhomocysteinaemia and vitamin D deficiency in their mothers.