Tag Archives: urine

Assessment of urinary podocalyxin as a biomarker of early diagnosis of hypertensive nephropathy

I. Kostovska*, K. Tosheska-Trajkovska, D. Labudovic,
S. Cekovska, O. Kostovski, G. Spasovski

Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia;
*e-mail: irenakostovska22@yahoo.com

Received: 31 August 2023; Revised: 28 September 2023;
Accepted: 27 October 2023; Available on-line: 06 November 2023

Chronically high blood pressure-related kidney injury is known as hypertensive nephropathy (HN). Podocyte damage in the pathogenesis of this disease can result in the release of the sialoglycoprotein podocalyxin into the urine, so podocalyxin may be useful in the early diagnosis of HN. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between urine podocalyxin level and clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with HN and to assess the diagnostic utility of urinary podocalyxin as an early marker of HN. Participants (114 individuals) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 30 healthy controls and 84 patients with clinically proven chronic hypertension (CH). Biochemical tests were performed on the blood samples. Urinary microalbumin and creatinine levels were measured using immunoturbidimetric and spectrophotometric methods, respectively; urinary podocalyxin level was estimated with ELISA. All CH patients were classified into subgroups according to urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (UM/CR) and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The results obtained showed that urinary podocalyxin level was significantly increased in both UM/CR and CKD staging subgroups compared with the healthy control group. A gradual increase in urinary podocalyxin level with CKD stage, especially in IV and V stages, and the higher sensitivi­ty of urinary podocalyxin as compared to UM/CR ratio in early detection of HN was demonstrated. It was concluded that urinary podocalyxin may be an important and highly sensitive marker for early diagnosis of hypertensive nephropathy in patients with chronic hypertension.

“Three sources and three component parts” of free oligosaccharides

I. U. Pismenetskaya1, T. D. Butters2

1SI Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy, Ukraine;
2Oxford Glycobiology Institute, University of Oxford, UK;
e-mail: pismenetskaya@yahoo.com

Metabolism of glycoproteins and glycolipids is accompanied by the appearance of unbound structural analogues of the carbohydrate portion of glycoconjugates or so called free oligosaccharides. There are their several sources inside the cell: 1) multistep pathways of N-glycosylation, 2) the cell quality control and ER-associated degradation of misglycosylated and /or misfolded glycoproteins, 3) lysosomal degradation of mature glycoconjugates. In this review the information about the ways of free oligosaccharides appearance in different cell compartments and details of their structures depending on the source is summarized. In addition, extracellular free oligosaccharides, their structures and changes under normal and pathological conditions are discussed.