Tag Archives: diabetes mellitus

The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on the lipid composition of the rat testes and testosterone level during the early stages of streptozotocin-іnduced diabetes

O. V. Onopchenko*, T. M. Horid’ko, H. V. Kosiakova,
A. G. Berdyshev, V. M. Klimashevsky, N. M. Hula

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: onop.89.av@gmail.com

Received: 23 December 2019; Accepted: 27 March 2020

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiorgan complications, including reproductive system dysfunction where lipid imbalance of germ cells play an important role. N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) shows a modulatory effect on the lipid composition under different pathologies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the NSE effect on the testes lipid composition and testosterone level in plasma of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg). Animals with glucose levels of 8-12 mmol/l were further selected. NSE was administrated to rats (50 mg/kg) for 10 days at 1.5 months after the streptozotocin injection. The rat testes were used for lipid analysis, namely, phospholipid level, fatty acid methyl esters and plasma testosterone estimation. NSE administration to diabetic rats triggered normalization of total and individual phospholipid content, as well as composition of free and phospholipids fatty acids in the rat testes. In addition, the testosterone content showed a slight increase under the action of NSE. Our results showed that the early stages of diabetes caused destructive changes in rat testes that may induce a decrease in future testicular function. NSE administration to diabetic rats normalized the lipid content of rat testes and was correlated with an increased testosterone level. NSE induced the restoration of testes structure and function during the early stages of streptozotocin-іnduced diabetes in rats.

Altered sirtuins 1 and 2 expression in the brain of rats induced by experimental diabetes and the ways of its correction

M. M. Guzyk1, T. M. Tykhonenko1, K. O. Dyakun1,
L. V. Yanitska2, I. B. Pryvrotska3, T. M. Kuchmerovska1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3I. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: tkuchmerovska@gmail.com

Received: 03 August 2018; Accepted: 13 December 2018

The molecular pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy (DE), one of the serious complications of diabetes mellitus, is complex. In this study, we examined whether expression levels of SIRT1 and SIRT2 were the key for the development of brain dysfunctions and whether PARP-1 inhibitors could affect the expression of these proteins for prevention the development of DE in rats with type 1 diabetes. After 10 weeks of the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (70 mg/kg), Wistar male rats were treated by i.p. injection with PARP-1 inhibitors, 1.5-isoquinolinediol (ISO) or nicotinamide (NAm) (3 or 100 mg/kg/daily i.p., respectively) for 2 weeks. The rats with blood glucose levels over 19.7 ± 2.1 mmol/l were taken into experiments. Western blots were performed to evaluate effects of PAPR-1 inhibitors on the levels of sirtuins, SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression. Diabetes induced significant reduction of SIRT1 expression and SIRT2 overexpression in brain nuclear extracts of diabetic rats compared to non-diabetic control. In brain, NAm attenuated SIRT2 overexpression in nuclear extracts of diabetic rats and slightly elevated SIRT1 expression, while ISO didn’t affect expression of both sirtuins in diabetic rats. Furthermore, it was observed that in brain of diabetic rats, the ratio of free NAD/NADH couples decreased 3.1-fold compared to non-diabetic control. The administration of ISO increased only slightly the ratio of free NAD/NADH couples in the brain of diabetic rats while NAm increased this parameter 1.7-fold compared to diabetic rats. Therefore, we concluded that alterations in the expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in brain cell nuclei of diabetic rats can lead to the development of brain dysfunctions. One of the neuroprotective mechanisms of NAm action can also be realized through inhibition of SIRT2 expression in brain cell nuclei that down-regulate progression of diabetes-induced alterations and can be a therapeutic option for treatment of brain dysfunctions.

Effect of N-stearoylethanolamine(NSE) on activity of angiotensine-converting enzyme in the brain structures and blood plasma of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes

L. M. Kalynska1, G. V. Kosiakova2, N. M. Gula2

1Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism,
National Academy Medical of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ngula@biochem.kiev.ua; iem_admi@bigmir.net

The influence of saturated N-acylethanolamine – N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the activity of angiotensine-converting enzyme (ACE) in the brain structures of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes was studied. It was shown that decreased activity of ACE was observed in the hypothalamus, increased – in the anterior pituitary. The NSE suspension administration to rats with experimental diabetes in a dose 50 mg/kg of body weight during 10 days caused a decrease in ACE activity in the anterior pituitary, whereas in the hypothalamus and hippocampus ACE activi­ty did not change significantly. At the same time, introduction of NSE to intact animals led to the reduction of activity of ACE in the hippocampus, anterior pituitary and blood plasma. It is known that the highest amount of ACE in the brain structures is located in the membrane-bound state. Thus, the changes we have found in the activity of ACE in the control rats and in animals with induced diabetes may be related to the ability of NSE to the modulation of cell membranes lipid profile. Changes in the activity of ACE under the action of N-acylethanolamines may be one of the mechanisms for implementation of anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory action of these compounds.

Levels of serum antibodies to enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides and their relationship with concentration of C-reactive protein in diabetes mellitus patients

A. I. Gordienko

S. I. Georgievsky Crimea state medical university, Simferopol;
e-mail: uu4jey@csmu.strace.net

We examined patients with type 1 (DM 1) and type 2 (DM 2) diabetes mellitus. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood and levels of serum antibodies to different classes of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were determined by ELISA. Using cluster analysis it was shown that in 40.8% DM-1 patients the increased concentration of CRP is associated with a decrease in the levels of serum anti-LPS-IgA, anti-LPS-IgM and anti-LPS-IgG. In 56.7% of DM-2 patients with increased concentration of CRP levels of serum anti-LPS-IgA and anti-LPS-IgM were not significantly different from the normal values, but the levels of serum anti-LPS-IgG were significantly increased. Activation of inflammation and increase of concentration of the CRP in the blood of DM-2 patients is accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of serum anti-LPS-A and anti-LPS-G, as well as the tendency to reduce the levels of anti-LPS-IgM. The results of this study suggest an association between low intensity inflammation and immune response to enterobacterial LPS  in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

Association of allele variants of receptor gene of androgens (by the number of CAG-repeats) with androgen dependent hormonal metabolic indices of the organism

V. V. Korpachev, S. V. Melnychenko, R. G. Lukashova

State Institution V. Р. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism,
National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: vitascovna@gmail.com

This review discusses up-to-date conceptions concerning an association of androgen receptor gene (AR) allele (by the number of CAG-repeats) variations with the change of the receptor activity in humans. Different contradictory experiment results concerning the AR function dependence on the number of CAG-repeats have been analyzed. The authors discuss this problem paying mostly their attention to the interrelation between the number of CAG-repeats  and indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism in males and females.