Tag Archives: diabetes mellitus

Dietary intake of folate and the frequency of its deficiency in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy children

L. I. Dobrovolska*, O. R. Boyarchuk, M. I. Kinash

І. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University,
Department of Children’s Diseases and Pediatric Surgery, Ternopil, Ukraine;
*e-mail: dobrovolska_li@tdmu.edu.ua

Received: 29 January 2022; Revised: 22 March 2022;
Accepted: 20 September 2022; Available on-line: 19 December 2022

Adequate folate intake is essential for a child’s growth. There is lack of information about the prevalence of this nutrient deficiency in the Ukrainian population, including children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary intake of folate and determine the frequency of folate deficiency in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and healthy children. Determination of folate in serum was performed by ELISA. Folate level <3 ng/ml was diagnosed as a folate deficiency. Among all observed children the folate deficiency was diagnosed in 23 (32.9%): in 6 (17.1%) patients with T1D and in 17 (48.6%) healthy children (P ≤ 0.01). The mean level of serum folate in patients with T1D was (5.09 ± 2.16) ng/ml and (3.72 ± 1.87) ng/ml in healthy children (P ≤ 0.01). The average daily intake of folate with food was (138.68 ± 70.37) µg, without difference between T1D (12.00 ± 3.51 yr.) and healthy groups (10.83 ± 3.24 yr.), and it was more than two times lower than age requirements (300 µg/day). However, it was self-reported that 15 (48.9%) children of T1D group received vitamin supplementation one time in six months, while in healthy children only 6 (17.1%) children received vitamins (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, the frequency of folate deficiency is high in the pediatric population. Nutrition does not provide the necessary intake of folate, which indicates the need for additional folate supplementation.

The level of nitric oxide and arginase activity in patients with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus during COVID-19

O. Y. Sklyarova1, S. R. Mahiiovych2, N. V. Denysenko3,
L. I. Kobylinska3*, Y. Y. Sklyarov2

1Department of Family Medicine FPGE, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Ukraine;
2Department of Therapy No 1 and Medical Diagnostics FPGE, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Ukraine;
3Department of Biological Chemistry, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: lesyaivanivna.biochemistry@gmail.com

Received: 28 September 2022; Revised: 06 November 2022;
Accepted: 11 November 2022; Available on-line: 19 December 2022

The aim of this study was to assess the level of nitric oxide production and arginase activity in patients with arterial hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus during infection with SARS-CoV-2. The study groups included patients with arterial hypertension, patients with arterial hypertension combined with a severe course of COVID-19 and patients who, in addition to arterial hypertension and COVID-19, were suffering from type II diabetes mellitus. The volunteers without any clinical signs of diseases and normal blood pressure formed the control group. It has been established that arterial hypertension, combined with COVID-19 occurs along with reduced L-arginine, nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase activity and increased arginase activity. At the same time, the presence of arterial hypertension in patients with diabetes and coronavirus disease is accompanied by a decline in the content of L-arginine and arginase activity. Our study’s results may help scientists find new pharmacological targets in the future treatment of coronavirus disease and comorbid disorders.

Nanoparticles application as a therapeutic strategy for diabetes mellitus management

A. B. Ojo1, A. I. Oni2, D. Rotimi2, M. Iyobhebhe2,
P. O. Adeniji3, J. Talabi4, O. A. Ojo2,5*

1Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria;
2Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria;
3Department of Tourism Studies, Redeemer’s University, Ede, Nigeria;
4Department of Food Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria;
5Department of Biochemistry, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria;
*e-mail: oluwafemiadeleke08@gmail.com

Received: 08 December 2021; Accepted: 01 July 2022

The prevalence of diabetes, as reported by the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation, has raised many eyebrows about the dangers of diabetes mellitus to society, leading to the development of various therapeutic techniques, including nanotechnological, in the management of this disease. This review discusses silver, gold, ceramic, alloy, magnetic, silica, polymeric nanoparticles and their various applications in diabetes management which may help to reduce the incidence of diabetes and its complication.

The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on the lipid composition of the rat testes and testosterone level during the early stages of streptozotocin-іnduced diabetes

O. V. Onopchenko*, T. M. Horid’ko, H. V. Kosiakova,
A. G. Berdyshev, V. M. Klimashevsky, N. M. Hula

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: onop.89.av@gmail.com

Received: 23 December 2019; Accepted: 27 March 2020

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiorgan complications, including reproductive system dysfunction where lipid imbalance of germ cells play an important role. N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) shows a modulatory effect on the lipid composition under different pathologies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the NSE effect on the testes lipid composition and testosterone level in plasma of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg). Animals with glucose levels of 8-12 mmol/l were further selected. NSE was administrated to rats (50 mg/kg) for 10 days at 1.5 months after the streptozotocin injection. The rat testes were used for lipid analysis, namely, phospholipid level, fatty acid methyl esters and plasma testosterone estimation. NSE administration to diabetic rats triggered normalization of total and individual phospholipid content, as well as composition of free and phospholipids fatty acids in the rat testes. In addition, the testosterone content showed a slight increase under the action of NSE. Our results showed that the early stages of diabetes caused destructive changes in rat testes that may induce a decrease in future testicular function. NSE administration to diabetic rats normalized the lipid content of rat testes and was correlated with an increased testosterone level. NSE induced the restoration of testes structure and function during the early stages of streptozotocin-іnduced diabetes in rats.

Altered sirtuins 1 and 2 expression in the brain of rats induced by experimental diabetes and the ways of its correction

M. M. Guzyk1, T. M. Tykhonenko1, K. O. Dyakun1,
L. V. Yanitska2, I. B. Pryvrotska3, T. M. Kuchmerovska1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3I. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: tkuchmerovska@gmail.com

Received: 03 August 2018; Accepted: 13 December 2018

The molecular pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy (DE), one of the serious complications of diabetes mellitus, is complex. In this study, we examined whether expression levels of SIRT1 and SIRT2 were the key for the development of brain dysfunctions and whether PARP-1 inhibitors could affect the expression of these proteins for prevention the development of DE in rats with type 1 diabetes. After 10 weeks of the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (70 mg/kg), Wistar male rats were treated by i.p. injection with PARP-1 inhibitors, 1.5-isoquinolinediol (ISO) or nicotinamide (NAm) (3 or 100 mg/kg/daily i.p., respectively) for 2 weeks. The rats with blood glucose levels over 19.7 ± 2.1 mmol/l were taken into experiments. Western blots were performed to evaluate effects of PAPR-1 inhibitors on the levels of sirtuins, SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression. Diabetes induced significant reduction of SIRT1 expression and SIRT2 overexpression in brain nuclear extracts of diabetic rats compared to non-diabetic control. In brain, NAm attenuated SIRT2 overexpression in nuclear extracts of diabetic rats and slightly elevated SIRT1 expression, while ISO didn’t affect expression of both sirtuins in diabetic rats. Furthermore, it was observed that in brain of diabetic rats, the ratio of free NAD/NADH couples decreased 3.1-fold compared to non-diabetic control. The administration of ISO increased only slightly the ratio of free NAD/NADH couples in the brain of diabetic rats while NAm increased this parameter 1.7-fold compared to diabetic rats. Therefore, we concluded that alterations in the expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in brain cell nuclei of diabetic rats can lead to the development of brain dysfunctions. One of the neuroprotective mechanisms of NAm action can also be realized through inhibition of SIRT2 expression in brain cell nuclei that down-regulate progression of diabetes-induced alterations and can be a therapeutic option for treatment of brain dysfunctions.

Effect of N-stearoylethanolamine(NSE) on activity of angiotensine-converting enzyme in the brain structures and blood plasma of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes

L. M. Kalynska1, G. V. Kosiakova2, N. M. Gula2

1Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism,
National Academy Medical of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ngula@biochem.kiev.ua; iem_admi@bigmir.net

The influence of saturated N-acylethanolamine – N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the activity of angiotensine-converting enzyme (ACE) in the brain structures of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes was studied. It was shown that decreased activity of ACE was observed in the hypothalamus, increased – in the anterior pituitary. The NSE suspension administration to rats with experimental diabetes in a dose 50 mg/kg of body weight during 10 days caused a decrease in ACE activity in the anterior pituitary, whereas in the hypothalamus and hippocampus ACE activi­ty did not change significantly. At the same time, introduction of NSE to intact animals led to the reduction of activity of ACE in the hippocampus, anterior pituitary and blood plasma. It is known that the highest amount of ACE in the brain structures is located in the membrane-bound state. Thus, the changes we have found in the activity of ACE in the control rats and in animals with induced diabetes may be related to the ability of NSE to the modulation of cell membranes lipid profile. Changes in the activity of ACE under the action of N-acylethanolamines may be one of the mechanisms for implementation of anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory action of these compounds.

Levels of serum antibodies to enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides and their relationship with concentration of C-reactive protein in diabetes mellitus patients

A. I. Gordienko

S. I. Georgievsky Crimea state medical university, Simferopol;
e-mail: uu4jey@csmu.strace.net

We examined patients with type 1 (DM 1) and type 2 (DM 2) diabetes mellitus. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood and levels of serum antibodies to different classes of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were determined by ELISA. Using cluster analysis it was shown that in 40.8% DM-1 patients the increased concentration of CRP is associated with a decrease in the levels of serum anti-LPS-IgA, anti-LPS-IgM and anti-LPS-IgG. In 56.7% of DM-2 patients with increased concentration of CRP levels of serum anti-LPS-IgA and anti-LPS-IgM were not significantly different from the normal values, but the levels of serum anti-LPS-IgG were significantly increased. Activation of inflammation and increase of concentration of the CRP in the blood of DM-2 patients is accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of serum anti-LPS-A and anti-LPS-G, as well as the tendency to reduce the levels of anti-LPS-IgM. The results of this study suggest an association between low intensity inflammation and immune response to enterobacterial LPS  in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

Association of allele variants of receptor gene of androgens (by the number of CAG-repeats) with androgen dependent hormonal metabolic indices of the organism

V. V. Korpachev, S. V. Melnychenko, R. G. Lukashova

State Institution V. Р. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism,
National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: vitascovna@gmail.com

This review discusses up-to-date conceptions concerning an association of androgen receptor gene (AR) allele (by the number of CAG-repeats) variations with the change of the receptor activity in humans. Different contradictory experiment results concerning the AR function dependence on the number of CAG-repeats have been analyzed. The authors discuss this problem paying mostly their attention to the interrelation between the number of CAG-repeats  and indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism in males and females.