Tag Archives: GABA release

Effect of nitric oxide donor SNAP on GABA release from rat brain nerve terminals

A. S. Tarasenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: tas@biochem.kiev.ua

In this work we investigated the effect of nanomolar concentrations of nitric oxide on the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from rat brain nerve terminals using a radioisotope method with [3H]GABA and a spectrofluorimetric method with Ca2+-sensitive probe Fluo-4 AM. It was shown that in the presen­ce of dithiothreitol (DTT), nitric oxide donor SNAP at concentration, in which it produces NO in the nanomolar range, caused Ca2+-independent [3H]GABA release from nerve terminals. The applications of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and nipecotic acid (NA), as the inducers of GABA release from vesicular and cytoplasmic pools, showed that the maximum of SNAP/+DTT-induced [3H]GABA release was registered at 10th min of incubation and coincided in time with significant increase (almost double) in NA-induced [3H]GABA release. At this time point, 4-AP-induced release of [3H]GABA was drastically reduced. At the 15th min of incubation of nerve terminals with SNAP/+DTT, the opposite picture was observed: the decrease in NA- and increase in 4-AP-induced [3H]GABA release. Thus, nitric oxide in the form of S-nitrosothiols at nanomolar concentrations causes Ca2+-independent GABA leakage from synaptic vesicles into cytosol with subsequent release from nerve terminals. The reuptake of the neurotransmitter and its re-accumulation in synaptic vesicles occur later.

Activation of presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors stimulates gaba release from hippocampal and cortical rat brain nerve terminals

O. О. Krupko, A. S. Tarasenko, N. G. Himmelreich

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: olya_krupko@mail.ru

One of the pathways implicated in a fine-tuning control of neurosecretory process is the activation of presynaptic receptors. The present study was focused on the role of presynaptic glutamate receptor activation in the regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus and cortex. We aimed to clarify what types of ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the modulation of GABA secretion, and what mechanism underlies this modulation. We have revealed that specific agonists of kainate and NMDA receptors, kaina­te and NMDA, like glutamate, induced the release of [3H]GABA from hippocampal and cortical nerve terminals suggesting the involvement of both types in the regulation of GABAergic transmission. Our results indicate preferential involvement of vesicular, but not cytosolic, pool in response to glutamate receptor activation. This is based on the finding that NO-711 (a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane GABA transporters), fails to attenuate [3H]GABA release. We have concluded that presynaptic glutamate receptor-induced modulation of the strength of synaptic response is due to increasing the release probability of synaptic vesicles.