Tag Archives: molecular biology

The discovery of the DNA double helix, or the revolution that ushered in the era of molecular biology (Nobel Prize 1962)

O. P. Matyshevska*, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiyv;
*e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 19 June 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

The 1950s were marked by groundbreaking discoveries in the research of the molecular structure of DNA. The chronology of awarding Nobel Prizes to the authors of these discoveries, did not always coincide with the chronology of announcing the results of their research. J. Watson and F. Crick published their short paper on the discovery of DNA structure, which rocked the scientific world, in Nature in 1953, but received the Nobel Prize together with M. Wilkins only 9 years later. The discovery of the DNA chemical structure is recognized as one of the greatest biological discoveries of the twentieth century. This landmark scientific breakthrough began the development of a new field of the life sciences: molecular biology.

Scientific and practical activity of the Department of Molecular Biology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine

R. P. Vynogradova, M. V. Grigorieva, V. M. Danilova

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

The present paper gives a detailed analysis of scientific and practical activity of the Department of Molecular Biology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its development. The most important results of the research of molecular mechanisms of regulation of glycolysis and gene expression in malignant tumors upon hypoxia; identification of key transcription factors of the regulation of proliferation and the role of alternative splicing in the regulation of the activity of the different PFKFB isoforms are reported. In recent years, the efforts of the department’s staff have been focused on studying the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the regulation of metabolism and proliferation processes at the level of gene expression in genome reprogramming. The obtained results allow to establish the molecular bases­ of pathogenesis of various diseases and to develop new effective methods for their diagnosis, prevention and treatment.