Tag Archives: proteomics

Short peptide sequences: current knowledge and future prospects

C. M. Nasadyuk

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University,
Department of Biochemistry, Lviv, Ukraine;
e-mail: nasadyukch@gmail.com

Received: 09 March 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

According to modern knowledge, the biological effect of many peptides is mediated by their short-chain fragments – oligopeptides – ranging from 2 to 20 amino acids and the activity of short peptides often significantly exceeds the activity of the peptide precursor. Aim of the review was to summarize the uptodate data on the stability of short peptide sequences, mechanisms of cell penetration, interaction with cell receptors, biological effects and approaches to clinical application. Stability of short peptides is mediated by their structure and molecular weight. Some di-/tripeptides were reported to be able to permeate through intestinal membranes in their intact forms via peptide transporter systems, while others are vulnerable to protease degradation. Although pinocytosis is presumed to be the main mechanism how short peptide sequences enter the cell, some lipophilic oligopeptides were shown to penetrate the cell membrane by the same mechanism as steroid or thyroid hormones and specific extracellular receptors were also described. Low-weighing oligopeptides realize their effect on the cell, chromosomal, genome and molecular levels. The advantages of oligopeptides include oral availability (for low weight compounds), low immunogenicity, high tissue specifici­ty, faster biological effect, better cost efficiency and environmental friendliness of their synthesis. Hence, short peptide sequences are regarded as promising candidates for pharmacotherapy, cell cultures and drug delivery­ purposes.

Legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics: achievements and perspectives

Iu. Iu. Kondratiuk, P. M. Mamenko, S. Ya. Kots

Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: kondratyuk_yulya@ukr.net

The present review contains results of proteo­mic­ researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown.  Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.