Tag Archives: cobalt

Evaluation of biological effects of cobalt-nanocomposites with the use of biochemical markers of bivalve mollusk Anodonta cygnea

H. I. Falfushynska1, L. L. Gnatyshyna1, O. B. Stoliar1, N. E. Mitina2, O. S. Zaichenko2, Ye. Z. Filyak3, R. S. Stoika3

1Volodymyr Hnatiuk Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: halynka.f@gmail.com,  oksana.stolyar@gmail.com;
2Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine;
3Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
e-mail: stoika@cellbiol.lviv.ua

Intensive implementation of nanomaterials requires development of novel methods for evalua­tion of their potential ecotoxicity. The aim of our study was to identify specific characteristics of the effect of cobalt-nanocomposite (Co-NC) on the molecular stress-responsive system in the digestive gland of bivalve mollusk Anodonta cygnea. Nanocomposite was synthesized by mixing alcohol solution of copolymer N-vinylpirrolidone, 5-(tret-butylperoxy)-5-methyl-1-hexene-3-yne and dimethylaminoethylmetacrylate and cobalt (II) chloride. After 14 days of the mollusk exposure in the presence of Co-NC, CoCl2 or corresponding polymer substance it was shown that the Co NC, in contrast to other agents, does not cause an oxidative stress due to the superoxide dismutase activity, metallotioneins (MTs) level, glutathione redox index and oxyradical production. Multivaria­te analysis confirmed specific features of the Co NC’s effect related to an enhanced expression of MTs, while CoCl2 activated lactate dehydrogenate and oxyradical production, and polymer substance enhanced glutathione transferase activity.

Functions of metallothioneins and a system of antioxidant defense under the effect of Co- and Zn-containing nanocomposites on crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

H. I. Falfushynska1,2, L. L. Gnatyshyna1, O. O. Turta1, O. B. Stoliar1,
N. E. Mitina3, O. S. Zaichenko3, R. S. Stoika4

1Volodymyr Hnatiuk Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Ukraine;
2I. Ya. Horbachevski Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: halynka.f@gmail.com;
3Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine;
4Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv

The effect of metal-nanocomposites (Me-NC) of cobalt and zinc (Co- and Zn-NC, correspondingly) synthecized on the basis of vinylpyrrolidone (PS) on the metal-accumulative proteins with antioxidant potential metallothioneins (MT) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was studied­. Fish was subjected to the effect of Co-NC, Zn-NC, Co2+, Zn2+ or polymer carrier (PC) in the concentrations correspondent to 50 µg×Co/l or 100 µg×Zn/l during 14 days. It was shown that the MTs response is highly specific for the nature of metal, both in ion and Me-NC form: the effect of Co and Co-NC provoked the elevation of total MT concentration (MT-SH) and activation of antioxidant defence, whereas Zn and Zn-NC induced the decrease of the concentration of MT-SH and the inhibition of antioxidant defense. All the exposures provoked the decrease of the concentration of immunoreactive chelating MT form (MTi) and reduced glutathione, activation of anaerobiosys and Mn-superoxide dismutase, and also decrease of the concentration of proteins and lipids oxidative injury products. It was accompanied by the increase of the content of erythrocytes with nuclear abnormalities but did not cause the decrease of choline esterase activity. According to the rate of MT-SH and MTi concentrations, antioxidant potential of MTs is determined by its apoform. Our data indicate that partial biodegradation of Me-NC occurs in the organism of crucian carp.

Complexes of cobalt (II, III) with derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid – effectors of peptidases of Bacillus thuringiensis and α-L-Rhamnozidase of Eupenicillium erubescens and Cryptococcus albidus

L. D. Varbanets1, E. V. Matseliukh1, I. I. Seifullina2,
N. V. Khitrich2, N. A. Nidialkova1, E. V. Gudzenko1

1D. K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2I. I. Mechnikov Оdеssa National University, Ukraine;
e-mail: varbanets@serv.imv.kiev.ua

The influence of  cobalt (II, III) coordinative compounds with derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid on Bacillus thuringiensis IMV B-7324 peptidases with elastase and fibrinolytic activi­ty and Eupenicillium erubescens and Cryptococcus albidus α-L-rhamnosidases have been studied. Tested coordinative compounds of cobalt (II, III) on the basis of their composition and structure are presented by 6 groups: 1) tetrachlorocobaltates (II) of 3,6-di(R,R′)-iminio-1,2,4,5-tetratiane – (RR′)2Ditt[CoCl4]; 2) tetrabromocobaltates (II) of 3,6-di(R,R′)-iminio-1,2,4,5-tetratiane – (RR′)2Ditt[CoBr4]; 3) isothiocyanates of tetra((R,R′)-dithiocarbamatoisothiocyanate)cobalt (II) – [Co(RR′Ditc)4](NCS)2]; 4) dithiocarbamates of cobalt (II) – [Co(S2CNRR′)2]; 5) dithiocarbamates of cobalt (III) – [Co(S2CNRR′)3]; 6) molecular complexes of dithiocarbamates of cobalt (III) with iodine­ – [Co(S2CNRR′)3]∙2I2. These groups (1-6) are combined by the presence of the same complexing agent (cobalt) and a fragment S2CNRR′ in their mole­cules. Investigated complexes differ by a charge of intrinsic coordination sphere: anionic (1-2), cationic (3) and neutral (4-6). The nature of substituents at nitrogen atoms varies in each group of complexes. It is stated that the studied coordination compounds render both activating and inhibiting effect on enzyme activity, depending on composition, structure, charge of complex, coordination number of complex former and also on the enzyme and strain producer. Maximum effect is achieved by activating of peptidases B. thuringiensis IMV B-7324 with elastase and fibrinolytic activity. So, in order to improve the catalytic properties of peptidase 1, depending on the type of exhibited activity, it is possible to recommend the following compounds: for elastase – coordinately nonsaturated complexes of cobalt (II) (1-4) containing­ short aliphatic or alicyclic substituents at atoms of nitrogen and increasing activity by 17-100% at an average; for fibrinolytic – neutral dithio­carbamates of cobalt (II, III) (4-5) (by 29-199%). For increasing the fibrinolytic activity of peptidase it is better to use dibenzyl- or ethylphenyldithiocarbamates of cobalt (III), which increase activity by 15-40% at an average. The same complexes, and also compound {(CH2)6}2Ditt[CoCl4] make an activating impact on α-L-rhamnosidase C. albidus (by 10-20%).