Tag Archives: enzymes

Breaking the genetic code – a new revolutionary stage in the development of molecular biology: 1968 Nobel Prize laureates M. W. Nirenberg, H. G. Khorana, R. W. Holley

O. P. Matyshevska*, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 28 October 2021; Accepted: 12 November 2021

This review presents the life stories of M. Nirenberg, H. Khorana, and R. Holley, winners of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the history of the discoveries made by these scientists, and the methodological approaches used in their works. Owing to the M. Nirenberg and H. Khorana research, the nucleotide compositions of all mRNA triplet codons were decoded. H. Khorana was the first scientist to experimentally prove the direct link between the nucleotide sequence of DNA and the amino acid sequence of the synthesized protein and to obtain a synthetic gene. R. Holley was the first to completely decode the sequence of transport RNA, determine its secondary structure and role in protein synthesis on the ribosome. The Nobel Prize awarded to the scientists was a recognition of their contribution in understanding the mechanisms of coding and reading genetic information and marked a breakthrough moment in the development of molecular biology.

The discovery of the mechanisms of biological synthesis of nucleic acids: 1959 Nobel laureates S. Ochoa and A. Kornberg

O. P. Matyshevska, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 12 September 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2020

Alongside the chemical and physical research of nucleic acids in the 1940s-50s, the mechanisms of their biosynthesis were investigated. Thus, in 1959, Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the mechanisms of biological synthesis of RNA and DNA. The experiments performed by Ochoa and Kornberg are considered today the cornerstone of genetic engineering, as they first demonstrated the possibility of synthesizing RNA and DNA outside the living cell, and also as the enzymes they discovered were among the first tools of this technology.

The contribution of the Nobel Prize laureates to the development of dynamic biochemistry and bioenergetics. E. Buchner, A. Kossel, R. Willstätter, O. Meyerhof, A. Hill, O. Warburg, A. Szent-Györgyi

V. M. Danilova, R. P. Vynogradova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiyv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

Received: 29 November 2018; Accepted: 13 December 2018

Thanks to the great discoveries of the Nobel laureates of the first half of the 20th century – E. Buchner, A. Kossel, R. Willstätter, O. Meyerhof, A. Hill, O. Warburg, A. Szent-Györgyi, we have gained a deep understanding of the mechanisms of organic­ substances conversion and oxidation in living­ organisms­. This article gives an analysis of the research activity of these distinguished scientists, who, through decoding the main ways of conver­ting carbohydrates and energy in living organisms, laid the foundations of dynamic biochemistry and bioener­getics (one of the branches of biochemical science).

Scientific investigations of the Nobel prize winner Emil Fischer as a launching pad for the development of biochemistry: a brief overview

T. V. Danylova1, S. V. Komisarenko2

1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: danilova_tv@ukr.net;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: svk@biochem.kiev.ua

Modern biochemistry and molecular biology would be impossible without discoveries in related fields of science. This paper aims to outline briefly the main stages of scientific activity of a Nobel Prize winner 1902 – German chemist Hermann Emil Fischer, one of the leading chemists of all times. Emil Fischer was a brilliant multifaceted scientist who left his mark in organic chemistry, physiology, medicine, gave impetus to the development of biochemistry. His insights into the structures of sugars, enzymes, proteins, and purines have become a launching pad for the further development of biochemistry and molecular biology. His contribution to the natural sciences was immense; some chemical reactions and concepts were named after him. This prominent scientist was honored with a number of awards.

Hydrogen sulfide: metabolism, biological and medical role

N. V. Zaichko, A. V. Melnik, M. M. Yoltukhivskyy,
A. S. Olhovskiy, I. V. Palamarchuk

Pirogov Vinnytsya National Memorial Medical University, Ukraine
e-mail: nzaichko@mail.ru

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule that is actively synthesized in the tissues and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, neuromodulation, cytoprotection, inflammation and apoptosis. In recent years, new data on animal and human H2S metabolism and function under the effect of various endogenous and exogenous factors, including drugs were collected. This review is provided to introduce generalized information about the main and alternative H2S metabolism and regulation, peculiarities of transport, signaling, biological role and participation in pathogenesis. Submitted data describe H2S content and activity of H2S-synthesizing enzymes in different organs, H2S effect on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation based on our research results. The working classification of H2S metabolism modulators, which are used in biology and medicine, is proposed: 1) agents that increase H2S content in tissues (inorganic and organic H2S donors; H2S-synthesizing enzymes substrates and their derivatives, H2S-releasing drugs; agents that contain H2S-synthesizing enzymes cofactors and activators, agents that inhibit H2S utilization); 2) agents that reduce H2S content in tissues (specific and nonspecific inhibitors of H2S-synthesizing enzymes), 3) agents with uncertain impact on H2S metabolism (some medicines). It was demonstrated that vitamin-microelement and microelement complexes with H2S-synthesizing enzymes cofactors and activators represent a promising approach for H2S content correction in tissues.