Tag Archives: enzymes

Scientific investigations of the Nobel prize winner Emil Fischer as a launching pad for the development of biochemistry: a brief overview

T. V. Danylova1, S. V. Komisarenko2

1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: danilova_tv@ukr.net;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: svk@biochem.kiev.ua

Modern biochemistry and molecular biology would be impossible without discoveries in related fields of science. This paper aims to outline briefly the main stages of scientific activity of a Nobel Prize winner 1902 – German chemist Hermann Emil Fischer, one of the leading chemists of all times. Emil Fischer was a brilliant multifaceted scientist who left his mark in organic chemistry, physiology, medicine, gave impetus to the development of biochemistry. His insights into the structures of sugars, enzymes, proteins, and purines have become a launching pad for the further development of biochemistry and molecular biology. His contribution to the natural sciences was immense; some chemical reactions and concepts were named after him. This prominent scientist was honored with a number of awards.

Hydrogen sulfide: metabolism, biological and medical role

N. V. Zaichko, A. V. Melnik, M. M. Yoltukhivskyy,
A. S. Olhovskiy, I. V. Palamarchuk

Pirogov Vinnytsya National Memorial Medical University, Ukraine
e-mail: nzaichko@mail.ru

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule that is actively synthesized in the tissues and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, neuromodulation, cytoprotection, inflammation and apoptosis. In recent years, new data on animal and human H2S metabolism and function under the effect of various endogenous and exogenous factors, including drugs were collected. This review is provided to introduce generalized information about the main and alternative H2S metabolism and regulation, peculiarities of transport, signaling, biological role and participation in pathogenesis. Submitted data describe H2S content and activity of H2S-synthesizing enzymes in different organs, H2S effect on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation based on our research results. The working classification of H2S metabolism modulators, which are used in biology and medicine, is proposed: 1) agents that increase H2S content in tissues (inorganic and organic H2S donors; H2S-synthesizing enzymes substrates and their derivatives, H2S-releasing drugs; agents that contain H2S-synthesizing enzymes cofactors and activators, agents that inhibit H2S utilization); 2) agents that reduce H2S content in tissues (specific and nonspecific inhibitors of H2S-synthesizing enzymes), 3) agents with uncertain impact on H2S metabolism (some medicines). It was demonstrated that vitamin-microelement and microelement complexes with H2S-synthesizing enzymes cofactors and activators represent a promising approach for H2S content correction in tissues.