Tag Archives: obesity

Growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor serum levels in patients with obesity and food addiction

O. Avsar1*, S. Sancak2, I. Koroglu3, E. Avci4

1Hitit University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Corum, Turkey;
2Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Istanbul, Turkey;
3Arapgir Ali Özge State Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Malatya, Turkey;
4Health Sciences University, Department of Biochemistry, Ankara, Turkey;
*e-mail: orcunavsar@hitit.edu.tr

Received: 27 May 2021; Accepted: 12 November 2021

Obesity is a public health problem that increasingly becomes widespread and causes various complications. Food addiction is a hedonic eating behavior characterized by overconsumption of palatable foods (i.e., foods involve a high amount of salt, sugar and fat). Disturbances in the growth hormone signaling pathway were shown to be associated with increased food intake and adiposity. The study aimed to determine the growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) serum levels in individuals with obesity and food addiction. The present study involved 30 adults with obesity (23 females and 7 males) and 10 healthy adults (5 females and 5 males). 18 obese adults were diagnosed with food addiction, whereas only 2 individuals with food addiction were in the control group. GH, GHR, IGF-1 and insulin values were analyzed with ELISA kits. It was revealed that the obese subjects had significantly lower serum IGF-1 levels compared to healthy individuals (144.55±22.69 ng/ml vs 338.70±61.90 ng/ml, P < 0.001)). No significant differences in the GH, GHR and insulin levels between obese and control groups were detected (P > 0.05). No significant differences between the group with food addiction and the group without food addiction in terms of gender, age, weight, BMI, GH, GHR, insulin and IGF-1 levels were observed. Our study demonstrates that normal IGF-1 levels may be protective for the development of obesity. The serum levels of GH, GHR, insulin, IGF-1 are not associated with food addiction and, therefore, can not be used as novel markers of food addiction.

Covid-19 pandemic quarantine and social jetlag

M. Sahraei1, G. H. Meftahi2, H. Sahraei2*

1School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran;
2Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
*e-mail: h.sahraei@bmsu.ac.ir or hsahraei1343@gmail.com

Received: 31 January 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

Covid-19 pandemic forced the governments to choose the policy to the lockdown the gathering centers­, including universities and schools to prevent the rapid spread of the disease, forcing millions of people to stay at home for several weeks and even more. Staying in the home for such long periods is associated with a change in the wake/sleep period (a kind of social jet lag) and the resulting alteration in feeding time and type of food. Moreover, the prevalence of anxiety and depression resulted from the reduction in physical activity and bad news also may help to worsen the social jetlag effect on these parts of society. Possible hazardous changes in this factor are reviewed in this study and some suggestions for better management of this condition are also offered. Pubmed, SCOPUS, WOS, and Google Scholar data banks were searched using the following keyword in combination and/or alone: jetlag, social jetlag, Chronobiology, photoperiod, metabolic disease, cardiovascular, sleep/weak period. Longtime lockdown gathering centers are shown to change the photoperiod cycle in people, and it may induce several consequences, including the effects on cognitive brain function, induce mental illness, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, mitochondrial aging, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering these facts, it is important to make rehabilitation programs for all the societies’ members for post-pandemic time.

Personalised diet improve intestine microbiota and metabolism of obese rats

V. V. Bati1*, T. V. Meleshko1, O.V. Pallah1,
I. P. Zayachuk2, N. V. Boyko1

1RDE Centre of Molecular Microbiology and Mucosal Immunology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine;
2Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: victoria.bati@uzhnu.edu.ua

Received: 25 April 2020; Accepted: 07 July 2021

Recent research on human microbiome provide opportunities to develop functional foods of new generation that can regulate intestinal microbiota and the biochemical status of the individual. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of individually designed nutrition on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of rats. Outbred laboratory rats with obesity  were randomly divided into 9 groups (= 12) depending on the type of food ingredients taken orally for three months. The ratio of the intestinal commensal microorganisms main groups, as well as the lipid profile and the content of glucose, urea, calcium in the serum of animals were determined. It was shown that cholesterol level in the serum was reduced in experimental groups after consumption of lactobacilli suspension, blueberry juice, fermented milk drink based on lactobacilli, fermented milk drink with blueberry juice, sauerkraut. In most cases, the gut microbiome of experimental animals was characterized by a consistently high level of lacto and other beneficial bacteria and decreased amount of opportunistic microorganisms at the end of the experiment compared with animals in the control group. Based on the obtained data, we first proposed the principles of creating functional products by synergistically combining components of edible plants that act as prebiotics and microorganisms that act as probiotics for personalized use, targeted correction of intestinal microbiome and prevention of noncommunicable diseases.

The association between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic disorders in overweight and obese adolescents

H. A. Pavlyshyn, A.-M. A. Shulhai*

Department of Pediatrics № 2, I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine;
*e-mail: shulhai_aa@tdmu.edu.ua

Received: 29 January 2021; Accepted: 23 April 2021

An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents is often combined with a low level of vitamin D that may be associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which underlie the development of arterial hypertension and cardiometabolic changes. This work aimed to determine the association between vitamin D status and the main parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and anthropometric measurements. A total of 196 adolescents (129 boys and 67 girls) from the Ternopil region were examined. Their mean age was 15.5 ± 2.3 years. Based on the body mass index (BMI): 60 adolescents had normal body weight, 60 were overweight, and 76 were obese. Anthropometric measurements and general examinations were performed. In blood serum 25(OH)D levels and the main parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were determined. Low levels of 25(OH)D were found. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adolescents with BMI up to the 85th percentile was 56.7%, with BMI in the 85-97th percentiles was 70.0% and with BMI over the 97th percentile was 77.6%. Serum 25(OH)D levels in overweight and obese adolescents had a significant correlation with BMI (r = -0.427, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = -0.462, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, r = 0.214, P = 0.023), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, r = -0.226, P = 0.011), atherogenic index (r = -0.284, P = 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.483, P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR index (r = -0.454, P < 0.001). We concluded that the development of cardiometabolic disorders in overweight and obese adolescents is associated with vitamin D status.

Insulin resistance in obese adolescents and adult men modifies the expression of proliferation related genes

O. H. Minchenko1, Y. M. Viletska1, D. O. Minchenko1,2, V. V. Davydov3

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
3SI “Institute of Children and Adolescent Health Care,
National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kharkiv

Received: 11 December 2018; Accepted: 14 March 2019

Numerous data demonstrate that key regulatory factors, enzymes and receptors including HSPA5, MEST, SLC1A3, PDGFC, and ADM represent poly-functional, endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent proteins, which control variable metabolic pathways. The expression level of genes of these proteins in the blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adolescents and adult men with and without insulin resistance was studied. It was shown that in blood of obese adolescents without insulin resistance the expression level of SLC1A3, HSPA5, MEST, and PDGFC genes was significantly increased, but development of insulin resis­tance led to down-regulation of these genes expression except HSPA5 gene as compared to the control group as well as to the group of obese adolescents without insulin resistance. At the same time, the expression level of ADM gene did not change significantly in obese adolescents without insulin resistance, but the development of insulin resistance led to down-regulation of this gene expression. In subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adult men without insulin resistance the level of SLC1A3 gene expression was decreased, although ADM, MEST, and HSPA5 genes – increased. It was also shown that the development of insulin resistance in obese men affected the expression level of ADM and SLC1A3 genes only. Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents and adult men is associated with specific changes in the expression of genes, which related to proliferation and development of obesity and insulin resistance as well as to endoplasmic reticulum stress and contribute to the development of obesity complications.

Diagnostic significance of biochemical indicators of liver fibrogenesis in adolescents with obesity

O. V. Buznytska

Kharkіv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education,
V. N. Karazin Kharkіv National University, Ukraine
e-mail: ebuznickaa@ukr.net; missbuzelena@gmail.com

Received: 27 September 2018; Accepted: 13 December 2018

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease occurs in most obese people, the main pathway of which is the process of fibrogenesis. The aim of this work was to determine the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of liver fibrogenesis in adolescents with obesity. The levels of liver fibrosis markers, such as fibronectin, collagen type IV, N-terminal propeptides and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, were assessed with the use of IFA method in serum of 226 patients with obesity aged 8-18 years. A significant increase in levels of type IV collagen and fibronectin was observed in children with obesity (P < 0.05). As diagnostic criteria for fibrogenesis and fibrolysis, the levels of N-terminal propeptides and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, respectively, were determined. The serum level of N-terminal propeptides of type I collagen significantly exceeds the normal values in all children with obesity compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The biochemical markers (type IV collagen, fibronectin, N-terminal propeptides and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen) were proven to have high diagnostic informative value in the early diagnosis of liver fibrogenesis in obese adolescents. It was shown that the signs of fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease already occur at the stage of steatosis.

The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on adipocytes free cholesterol content and phospholipid composition in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance

O. S. Dziuba, Ie. A. Hudz, H. V. Kosiakova, T. M. Horid’ko, V. M. Klimashevsky, N. M. Hula

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: oksana.dziuba86@gmail.com

Obesity induces molecular changes that promote associated disorders, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Low insulin sensitivity occurs primarily due to defects in the pathway of insulin action in target tissues, and there is a hypothesis that IR may originate in adipose tissue and is followed by dyslipidemia. In this study using methods of thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography we investigated free cholesterol content and phospholipid composition of adipocytes of obesity-induced IR rats and its changes induced by the N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) administration. The results we obtained demonstrated that free cholesterol content significantly increased in adipocytes of IR rats compared to control. The analysis of phospholipid composition indicated a reduction of phosphatidylcholine and the total content of phosphatidylinositol with phosphatidylserine, whereas the content of lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine increased in IR group compared to control. NSE administration caused a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol level and had a considerable effect on normalization of individual phospholipids content. As far as NSE administration caused a statistically significant decrease in free cholesterol level and had a considerable effect on normalization of individual phospholipids content of adipocytes, we can consider NSE as a prospective compound worthy more complex investigation of its action under the pathological conditions.

Evaluation of metallothioneins, oxidative stress and signs of cytotoxicity in young obese women

H. I. Falfushynska, O. I. Horyn, V. V. Khoma, G. V. Tereshchuk,
D. V. Osadchuk, N. I. Rusnak, O. B. Stoliar

Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: falfushynska@tnpu.edu.ua

Obesity is rapidly increasing all over the world and pretends to be the global medical and social problem. Thus, the understanding of early signs of obesity and suitable biomarkers is urgently needed for developing an adequate strategy of the obesity prevention and a decrease in its growth rate. The parameters of the lipids’ metabolism and oxidative stress, metallothioneins and signs of cytotoxicity have been investigated in blood samples of young obese women (O-group, 32 < Body Mass Index (BMI) < 37). With regard to persons of O-group they had higher catalase activity (by 435%), level of reactive oxygen species (by 129%), level of oxidised glutathione (by 55%), lipid peroxidation (by 26%) and protein carbonyls (by 345%) in the blood, when compared with control. The obesity was accompanied by an increase in concentration of metallothioneins which have a partial tread effect on radical processes and reduce manifestations of oxidative damage to biomolecules in obese patients. The obese women had the signs of cytotoxicity as higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (by 387%) and DNA fragmentation (by 42%). The principal component analysis revealed the set of biological traits which describes the obesity progress and it included metallothioneins, parameters of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, BMI and a concentration of low density lipoproteins and total cholesterol. The BMI was in a good correlation with parameters of the lipid metabolism, oxidative injury and cytotoxicity (r > |0.73|, P < 0.001).

Blood coagulation and aortic wall integrity in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance

O. S. Dziuba1, V. O. Chernyshenko1, Ie. A. Hudz1, L. O. Kasatkina1, T. M. Chernyshenko1,
P. P. Klymenko2, H. V. Kosiakova1, T. M. Platonova1, N. M. Hula1, E. V. Lugovskoy1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: oksana.dziuba86@gmail.com;
2State Institute of Gerontology of AMS of Ukraine, Kyiv

Obesity is an important factor in pathogenesis of disorders caused by chronic inflammation. Diet-induced obesity leads to dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that in turn provoke the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the possible pro-atherogenic effects in the blood coagulation system and aortic wall of rats with obesity-induced IR. The experimental model was induced by a 6-month high-fat diet (HFD) in white rats. Blood samples were collected from 7 control and 14 obese IR rats. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial activated thromboplastin time (APTT) were performed by standard methods using Coagulometer Solar СТ 2410. Fibrinogen concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the modified spectrophotometric method. Levels of protein C (PC), prothrombin and factor X were measured using specific chromogenic substrates and activa­ting enzymes from snake venoms. Platelet aggregation was measured and their count determined using Aggregometer Solar AP2110. The aorta samples were stained by hematoxylin and eosin according to Ehrlich. Aortic wall thickness was measured using morphometric program Image J. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U Test. The haemostasis system was characterized by estimation of the levels of individual coagulation factors, anticoagulant system involvement and platelet reactivity. PT and APTT demonstrated that blood coagulation time strongly tended to decrease in obese IR rats in comparison to the control group. It was also detec­ted that 30% of studied obese IR rats had decreased factor X level, 40% had decreased level of prothrombin whereas fibrinogen concentration was slightly increased up to 3 mg/ml in 37% of obese IR rats. A prominent decrease of anticoagulant PC in blood plasma of obese rats was detected. Obese IR rats also had increased platelet count and higher rate of platelet aggregation in comparison to control animals. Histological analysis identified the disruption of aorta endothelium and tendency for the thickening of the aorta wall in the group with obesity-induced IR compared to the group of control rats. Changes of individual coagulation factors were assumed as the evidence of imbalance in the blood coagulation system. Increase of fibrinogen level, drop in PC concentration and pathological platelet reactivity were taken to corroborate the development of low-grade inflammation in obese IR rats. Instant generation of small amounts of thrombin in their blood plasma is expected. Since the aorta morphology assay detected the trend of its wall to thicken and the emergence of disruptions, we assumed there were initial stages of atherosclerosis and the danger of developing atherothrombosis. We detected an increase of blood coagulability and changes in aorta morphology in rats with obesity-induced IR which we assume indicate early development of atherosclerosis.

The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and protein carbonylation level in rats with alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance

O. V. Onopchenko, G. V. Kosiakova, E. F. Meged,
V. M. Klimashevsky, N. M. Hula

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: onop.89.av@mail.ru

The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on liver free fatty acid composition, cholesterol content and carbonylated protein level in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR) was studied in the work. The experimental insulin resistance was induced by prolonged high fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat) for 6 months combined with one injection of low-dose (15 mg/kg) of streptozotocin. The lipid assay showed a rise in liver free cholesterol content and a significant reduction in cholesterol esters level. Analyzing liver fatty acid composition, a decrease in polyunsaturated of fatty acid (PUFA) level and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was found. Fatty acid imbalance with high content of MUFA was associated with elevated level of protein carbonylation.  The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) for 2 weeks decreased free cholesterol content, increased cholesterol esters level and reduced free oleic fatty acid content in the liver of rats with IR. The effect of NSE on lipid imbalance led to a decrease in protein carbonylation level that may result in improvement of transmembrane protein function under obesity-induced insulin resistance state.