Tag Archives: obesity

PREX proteins level correlation with insulin resistance markers and lipid profile in obese and overweight non-diabetic patients

N. Hamza1*, A. A. Kasim2, W. E. Hameed3

1Babel Health Directorate, Ministry of Health and Environment, Babel, Iraq;
2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy,
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq;
3Nutrition Clinic Unit, Al-Imam Al-Sadiq Teaching Hospital,
Ministry of Health, Babil, Iraq;
*e-mail: ali.abdulhussein@uobasrah.edu.iq

Received: 04 March 2024; Revised: 03 April 2024;
Accepted: 31 May 2024; Available on-line: 17 June 2024

Metabolic dysregulation and obesity are associated with many metabolic alterations, including impairment of insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia. Recent studies highlight the key role of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac exchange proteins (PREX proteins) in the pathogenesis of obesity, advocating further elucidation of their potential therapeutic implications. The present study aimed to estimate the serum level of PREX proteins and its potential association with insulin resistance markers and plasma lipids level in obese and overweight non-diabetic patients. The study included 30 persons classified as obese, 30 as overweight, and 30 healthy individuals of similar age and gender. The levels of PREX1 and PREX2 were measured using ELISA kits, insulin, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total lipid profile were determined using appropriate photometric kits. HOMA-IR was used as a measure of insulin sensitivity. According to the obtained results, obese non-diabetic patients had higher serum PREX1 level compared to both overweight and normal-weight individuals. PREX1 correlated positively with the markers of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. PREX2 level was shown to be lower both in obese compared to overweight patients and in overweight compared to normal-weight individuals. PREX2 correlated negatively with the markers of insulin resistance but not with the markers of dyslipidemia.

Characterization of the blood coagulation system in morbidly obese patients

D. S. Korolova1, O. V. Hornytska1, A. S. Lavrik2,
N. M. Druzhyna1*, N. Prysyazhna3, T. M. Platonova1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Shalimov National Institute of Surgery and Transplantation,
National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: ndbiochem@gmail.com

Received: 18 April 2023; Revised: 05 May 2023;
Accepted: 7  September 2023; Available on-line:  12 September 2023

Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder that can be followed by blood coagulation disorders, athero­sclerosis and atherothrombosis. In the present work, the levels of fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, D-dimer as well as protein C were measured in the blood plasma of 24 morbidly obese patients (the body mass index exceeds 40 kg/m2) to evaluate the risk of prothrombotic state. The study showed that near by 80% of patients had substantially increased fibrinogen concentration, 33% had increased concentration of soluble fibrin, 42% had increased level of D-dimer in blood plasma as compared to control. According to the results of individual analysis, the high level of fibrinogen and soluble fibrin while reduced protein C indicated the threat of thrombosis, which requires complex diagnostics to be identified. Therefore, simultaneous quantification of hemostatic system biomarkers in the blood plasma is the confident way to predict the risk of thrombotic complications in morbidly obese patients.

Correlation between adiponectin level and obesity as a risk factor for allergy disease

M. Spasovska1*, T. K. Panovska2

1General Hospital, Ohrid, R.Macedonia;
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, R. Macedonia;
*e-mail: spasovskamilena@yahoo.com

Received: 28 November 2021; Revised: 30 June 2022;
Accepted: 29 September 2022; Available on-line: 06 October 2022

Much research has focused on the connection between two inflammatory conditions, allergic reactions and obesity which has led to a focus on adiponectin, hormone with anti-inflammatory properties secreted by adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the association of adiponectin with obesity, as a risk factor for the development of allergic condition in order to rationalize approach to its treatment. Research methods for inflammatory markers and biochemical parameters involve immunoassay technique. Statistical analysis was performed with Student’s t-test, Wilcoxon T-test and coefficient of correlation. The study included apparently healthy subjects and patients with allergy conditions with confirmed presence of specific IgE, classified into 2 groups according to their body mass index (BMI). The obtained data showed negative correlation (cor = – 0.6), between adiponectin levels and BMI values. Thus, decreased level of adiponectin is associated with increased BMI. The mean values of adiponectin in the studied population, with high statistical differen­ces between the groups (19.1 ± 1.5; 17.7 ± 0.9), (18.8± 1.1; 16.6 ± 1.0) demonstrated the relationship between low adiponectin level and development of obesity, and what, in turn, increasd risk of developing allergic conditions. The assumption was made that adiponectin may be used as a sensitive biochemical marker for early diagnostics of allergic reactions.

Growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor serum levels in patients with obesity and food addiction

O. Avsar1*, S. Sancak2, I. Koroglu3, E. Avci4

1Hitit University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Corum, Turkey;
2Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Istanbul, Turkey;
3Arapgir Ali Özge State Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Malatya, Turkey;
4Health Sciences University, Department of Biochemistry, Ankara, Turkey;
*e-mail: orcunavsar@hitit.edu.tr

Received: 27 May 2021; Accepted: 12 November 2021

Obesity is a public health problem that increasingly becomes widespread and causes various complications. Food addiction is a hedonic eating behavior characterized by overconsumption of palatable foods (i.e., foods involve a high amount of salt, sugar and fat). Disturbances in the growth hormone signaling pathway were shown to be associated with increased food intake and adiposity. The study aimed to determine the growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) serum levels in individuals with obesity and food addiction. The present study involved 30 adults with obesity (23 females and 7 males) and 10 healthy adults (5 females and 5 males). 18 obese adults were diagnosed with food addiction, whereas only 2 individuals with food addiction were in the control group. GH, GHR, IGF-1 and insulin values were analyzed with ELISA kits. It was revealed that the obese subjects had significantly lower serum IGF-1 levels compared to healthy individuals (144.55±22.69 ng/ml vs 338.70±61.90 ng/ml, P < 0.001)). No significant differences in the GH, GHR and insulin levels between obese and control groups were detected (P > 0.05). No significant differences between the group with food addiction and the group without food addiction in terms of gender, age, weight, BMI, GH, GHR, insulin and IGF-1 levels were observed. Our study demonstrates that normal IGF-1 levels may be protective for the development of obesity. The serum levels of GH, GHR, insulin, IGF-1 are not associated with food addiction and, therefore, can not be used as novel markers of food addiction.

Covid-19 pandemic quarantine and social jetlag

M. Sahraei1, G. H. Meftahi2, H. Sahraei2*

1School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran;
2Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
*e-mail: h.sahraei@bmsu.ac.ir or hsahraei1343@gmail.com

Received: 31 January 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

Covid-19 pandemic forced the governments to choose the policy to the lockdown the gathering centers­, including universities and schools to prevent the rapid spread of the disease, forcing millions of people to stay at home for several weeks and even more. Staying in the home for such long periods is associated with a change in the wake/sleep period (a kind of social jet lag) and the resulting alteration in feeding time and type of food. Moreover, the prevalence of anxiety and depression resulted from the reduction in physical activity and bad news also may help to worsen the social jetlag effect on these parts of society. Possible hazardous changes in this factor are reviewed in this study and some suggestions for better management of this condition are also offered. Pubmed, SCOPUS, WOS, and Google Scholar data banks were searched using the following keyword in combination and/or alone: jetlag, social jetlag, Chronobiology, photoperiod, metabolic disease, cardiovascular, sleep/weak period. Longtime lockdown gathering centers are shown to change the photoperiod cycle in people, and it may induce several consequences, including the effects on cognitive brain function, induce mental illness, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, mitochondrial aging, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering these facts, it is important to make rehabilitation programs for all the societies’ members for post-pandemic time.

Personalised diet improve intestine microbiota and metabolism of obese rats

V. V. Bati1*, T. V. Meleshko1, O.V. Pallah1,
I. P. Zayachuk2, N. V. Boyko1

1RDE Centre of Molecular Microbiology and Mucosal Immunology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine;
2Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: victoria.bati@uzhnu.edu.ua

Received: 25 April 2020; Accepted: 07 July 2021

Recent research on human microbiome provide opportunities to develop functional foods of new generation that can regulate intestinal microbiota and the biochemical status of the individual. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of individually designed nutrition on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of rats. Outbred laboratory rats with obesity  were randomly divided into 9 groups (= 12) depending on the type of food ingredients taken orally for three months. The ratio of the intestinal commensal microorganisms main groups, as well as the lipid profile and the content of glucose, urea, calcium in the serum of animals were determined. It was shown that cholesterol level in the serum was reduced in experimental groups after consumption of lactobacilli suspension, blueberry juice, fermented milk drink based on lactobacilli, fermented milk drink with blueberry juice, sauerkraut. In most cases, the gut microbiome of experimental animals was characterized by a consistently high level of lacto and other beneficial bacteria and decreased amount of opportunistic microorganisms at the end of the experiment compared with animals in the control group. Based on the obtained data, we first proposed the principles of creating functional products by synergistically combining components of edible plants that act as prebiotics and microorganisms that act as probiotics for personalized use, targeted correction of intestinal microbiome and prevention of noncommunicable diseases.

The association between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic disorders in overweight and obese adolescents

H. A. Pavlyshyn, A.-M. A. Shulhai*

Department of Pediatrics № 2, I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine;
*e-mail: shulhai_aa@tdmu.edu.ua

Received: 29 January 2021; Accepted: 23 April 2021

An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents is often combined with a low level of vitamin D that may be associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which underlie the development of arterial hypertension and cardiometabolic changes. This work aimed to determine the association between vitamin D status and the main parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and anthropometric measurements. A total of 196 adolescents (129 boys and 67 girls) from the Ternopil region were examined. Their mean age was 15.5 ± 2.3 years. Based on the body mass index (BMI): 60 adolescents had normal body weight, 60 were overweight, and 76 were obese. Anthropometric measurements and general examinations were performed. In blood serum 25(OH)D levels and the main parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were determined. Low levels of 25(OH)D were found. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adolescents with BMI up to the 85th percentile was 56.7%, with BMI in the 85-97th percentiles was 70.0% and with BMI over the 97th percentile was 77.6%. Serum 25(OH)D levels in overweight and obese adolescents had a significant correlation with BMI (r = -0.427, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = -0.462, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, r = 0.214, P = 0.023), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, r = -0.226, P = 0.011), atherogenic index (r = -0.284, P = 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.483, P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR index (r = -0.454, P < 0.001). We concluded that the development of cardiometabolic disorders in overweight and obese adolescents is associated with vitamin D status.

Insulin resistance in obese adolescents and adult men modifies the expression of proliferation related genes

O. H. Minchenko1, Y. M. Viletska1, D. O. Minchenko1,2, V. V. Davydov3

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
3SI “Institute of Children and Adolescent Health Care,
National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kharkiv

Received: 11 December 2018; Accepted: 14 March 2019

Numerous data demonstrate that key regulatory factors, enzymes and receptors including HSPA5, MEST, SLC1A3, PDGFC, and ADM represent poly-functional, endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent proteins, which control variable metabolic pathways. The expression level of genes of these proteins in the blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adolescents and adult men with and without insulin resistance was studied. It was shown that in blood of obese adolescents without insulin resistance the expression level of SLC1A3, HSPA5, MEST, and PDGFC genes was significantly increased, but development of insulin resis­tance led to down-regulation of these genes expression except HSPA5 gene as compared to the control group as well as to the group of obese adolescents without insulin resistance. At the same time, the expression level of ADM gene did not change significantly in obese adolescents without insulin resistance, but the development of insulin resistance led to down-regulation of this gene expression. In subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adult men without insulin resistance the level of SLC1A3 gene expression was decreased, although ADM, MEST, and HSPA5 genes – increased. It was also shown that the development of insulin resistance in obese men affected the expression level of ADM and SLC1A3 genes only. Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents and adult men is associated with specific changes in the expression of genes, which related to proliferation and development of obesity and insulin resistance as well as to endoplasmic reticulum stress and contribute to the development of obesity complications.

Diagnostic significance of biochemical indicators of liver fibrogenesis in adolescents with obesity

O. V. Buznytska

Kharkіv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education,
V. N. Karazin Kharkіv National University, Ukraine
e-mail: ebuznickaa@ukr.net; missbuzelena@gmail.com

Received: 27 September 2018; Accepted: 13 December 2018

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease occurs in most obese people, the main pathway of which is the process of fibrogenesis. The aim of this work was to determine the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of liver fibrogenesis in adolescents with obesity. The levels of liver fibrosis markers, such as fibronectin, collagen type IV, N-terminal propeptides and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, were assessed with the use of IFA method in serum of 226 patients with obesity aged 8-18 years. A significant increase in levels of type IV collagen and fibronectin was observed in children with obesity (P < 0.05). As diagnostic criteria for fibrogenesis and fibrolysis, the levels of N-terminal propeptides and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, respectively, were determined. The serum level of N-terminal propeptides of type I collagen significantly exceeds the normal values in all children with obesity compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The biochemical markers (type IV collagen, fibronectin, N-terminal propeptides and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen) were proven to have high diagnostic informative value in the early diagnosis of liver fibrogenesis in obese adolescents. It was shown that the signs of fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease already occur at the stage of steatosis.

The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on adipocytes free cholesterol content and phospholipid composition in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance

O. S. Dziuba, Ie. A. Hudz, H. V. Kosiakova, T. M. Horid’ko, V. M. Klimashevsky, N. M. Hula

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: oksana.dziuba86@gmail.com

Obesity induces molecular changes that promote associated disorders, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Low insulin sensitivity occurs primarily due to defects in the pathway of insulin action in target tissues, and there is a hypothesis that IR may originate in adipose tissue and is followed by dyslipidemia. In this study using methods of thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography we investigated free cholesterol content and phospholipid composition of adipocytes of obesity-induced IR rats and its changes induced by the N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) administration. The results we obtained demonstrated that free cholesterol content significantly increased in adipocytes of IR rats compared to control. The analysis of phospholipid composition indicated a reduction of phosphatidylcholine and the total content of phosphatidylinositol with phosphatidylserine, whereas the content of lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine increased in IR group compared to control. NSE administration caused a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol level and had a considerable effect on normalization of individual phospholipids content. As far as NSE administration caused a statistically significant decrease in free cholesterol level and had a considerable effect on normalization of individual phospholipids content of adipocytes, we can consider NSE as a prospective compound worthy more complex investigation of its action under the pathological conditions.