Ukr.Biochem.J. 2019; Volume 91, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, pp. 50-57

Curcuma longa aqueous extract prevents myocardial injury in hypercholesterolaemic albino rat

I. B. Ekeigwe, I. C. Ikegwuonu, I. K. Uchendu,
C. A. Uchenna, U. C. Okongwu

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Nigeria, Enugu;
email: ikenna.uchendu@unn.edu.ng

Received: 01 March 2019; Accepted: 17 May 2019

Coronary atherosclerosis is known to be associated with cardiomyopathy in patients worldwide. Present­ly there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk across the globe and the cost of heart disease treating is very high.  Therefore, prevention of heart diseases has become the better or easier option. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Curcuma longa aqueous extract (AECL) in hypercholesterolaemic rats. To achieve this 40 rats were randomly devided into four groups with 10 rats per group. Rats from the group I (normal control) received no treatment. High cholesterol diet (2 g/kg, oral) and high dose of anti-thyroid hormone drug carbimazole (60 mg/kg, oral) were administered once daily for 8 weeks to induce hypercholesterolaemia in rats of II-IV groups. Group II served as toxic (negative) control and group III (positive control) was treated with a standard lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, oral). Group IV received AECL (200 mg/kg) once daily for 8 weeks. For lipid profile analysis the total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides levels were estimated and creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transminase activities as cardiac biomarkers were assayed in blood serum using standard methods. The histopathological analysis of the heart tissue was carried out. It was shown that AECL significantly reduced hyperlipidaemia, stabilized cardiac biochemical markers and protected the cardiac muscle fibers from injury. The results of the present study suggest that the Curcuma longa extract has cardioprotective potential, and can be used to prevent hypercholesterolaemia-induced myocardial injury.

Keywords: , , , , , ,


References:

  1. Lamprea-Montealegre JA, McClelland RL, Grams M, Ouyang P, Szklo M, de Boer IH. Coronary heart disease risk associated with the dyslipidaemia of chronic kidney disease. Heart. 2018 Sep;104(17):1455-1460. PubMed, CrossRef
  2. Kingsley UI, Steven OO, Agu CE, Orji OC, Chekwube BE, Nwosu TF. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of crude methanolic extracts of Glycine max (soy bean) on high cholesterol diet-fed albino rats. J Med Allied Sci. 2017; 7(1): 34-40. CrossRef
  3. Smith GD, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, Rose G. Plasma cholesterol concentration and mortality. The Whitehall Study. JAMA. 1992 Jan 1;267(1):70-6. PubMed, CrossRef
  4. Muntner PM, Corsh J, Klag MJ, Smith JC, Eckfelvt J. Lipids and incipient hypercreatinaemia: A prospective association. J Am Sociol Neophrol. 1998; 9: 617.
  5. Araya J, Rodrigo R, Orellana M, Rivera G. Red wine raises plasma HDL and preserves long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat kidney and erythrocytes. Br J Nutr. 2001 Aug;86(2):189-95. PubMed, CrossRef
  6. Ikenna KU, Okechukwu SO, Chidozie EA, Oliver CO, Blessing EC, Tochi FN. Hypolipidaemic and renoprotective effects of Glycine max (Soy bean) against lipid profile and renal biochemical alterations in hypercholesterolemic rat. Int J Biomed Res. 2016; 7(12): 822-828.
  7. Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: A Review of Its’ Effects on Human Health. Foods. 2017 Oct 22;6(10). pii: E92. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  8. Uchendu IK, Nnedu EB, Orji OC. Combination of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and some calcium channel blockers synergistically improves CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2018; 3: 392-401.
  9. Uchendu IK, Agu CE. Anti-nephrotoxic and anti-hyperlipidaemic potentials of aqueous extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in hypercholesterolaemic albino rat. Pharmacologyonline. 2018; 3: 1-11.
  10. Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983 Dec;54(4):275-87. PubMed, CrossRef
  11. Trease G, Evans SM. Pharmacognosy: (15th Edition). English Language Book Society. Bailliere Tindall, London, 2002. P. 23-67.
  12. Fredrickson DS, Levy RI, Lees RS. Fat transport in lipoproteins – an integrated approach to mechanisms and disorders. N Engl J Med. 1967 Feb 2;276(5):273-81. PubMed, CrossRef
  13. Albers JJ, Warnick GR, Chenng MC. Quantitation of high density lipoproteins. Lipids. 1978 Dec;13(12):926-32. PubMed, CrossRef
  14. Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem. 1982 Oct;28(10):2077-80. PubMed
  15. Tietz NW. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd edition W. B. Saunders, co, Philadelphia, 1995. P. 216-217.
  16. Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1957 Jul;28(1):56-63. PubMed, CrossRef
  17. Baker FJ, Silverton RE, Pallister CJ. Baker and Silverton’s Introduction to Laboratory Technology. 7th Editon, Butterworth-Heinemann, Wobrun, MA, USA, ISBN-13: 978075621908, 1998; page 448.
  18. Wu N, Zhang X, Jia P, Jia D. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015 Dec;99(3):449-54.  PubMed, CrossRef
  19. Sakr SA, Mahran HA, Nofal AE. Effect of selenium on carbimazole-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in albino rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2011 Jan;25(1):59-66.  PubMed, CrossRef
  20. Sakr SA, Mahran HA, Nofal AE. Effect of selenium on carbimazole-induced histopathological and histochemical alterations in prostate of albino rats. Am J Med Med Sci. 2012;2(1):5-11.  CrossRef
  21. Sakr SA, EL-Naby SEH, Okdah YA,  El-Shabka AM. Impact of ginger aqueous extract on carbimazole induced testicular degenerative alterations and oxidative stress in albino rats. J Coastal Life Med. 2017;5(4):167-173.  CrossRef
  22. Orji OC, Uchendu IK, Agu CE, Nnedu EB, Okerreke AN, Orji GC. Combined Effects of Vitamin C and Tomato Extract (Lycopersicon Esculentum) on Carbimazole-induced Alterations in the Testes of Male Albino Rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018; 62(3): 380-384.
  23. Jena S, Bhanja S. Hypothyroidism alters antioxidant defence system in rat brainstem during postnatal development and adulthood. Neurol Sci. 2014 Aug;35(8):1269-74.  PubMed, CrossRef
  24. Chandurkar V, Shik J, Randell E. Exacerbation of underlying hypothyroidism caused by proteinuria and induction of urinary thyroxine loss: case report and subsequent investigation. Endocr Pract. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):97-103. PubMed, CrossRef
  25. Oakenfull DG, Topping DL. Saponins and plasma cholesterol. Atherosclerosis. 1983 Sep;48(3):301-3. PubMed, CrossRef
  26. Oakenfull D. Soy protein, saponins and plasma cholesterol. J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11):2971-2. PubMed, CrossRef
  27.  Oakenfull D, Sidhu GS. Could saponins be a useful treatment for hypercholesterolaemia? Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990 Jan;44(1):79-88. PubMed
  28. Xiao JX, Peng GH, Zhang SH. Prevention effects of soyasaponins on hyperlipidemia mice and its molecular mechanism. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica. 2005; 27: 147-150.
  29. Peterson DW. Plant sterols and tissue cholesterol levels. Am J Clin Nutr. 1958 Nov-Dec;6(6):644-9. PubMed, CrossRef
  30. Moghadasian MH, Frohlich JJ. Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis: clinical and experimental evidence. Am J Med. 1999 Dec;107(6):588-94. PubMed, CrossRef
  31. Modaresi A, Nafar M, Sahraei Z. Oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2015 May;9(3):165-79. PubMed
  32. Verdoodt A, Honore PM, Jacobs R, De Waele E, Van Gorp V, De Regt J, Spapen HD. Do Statins Induce or Protect from Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update Review in 2018. J Transl Int Med. 2018 Mar 28;6(1):21-25.  PubMed, PubMedCentral,CrossRef
  33. Podsędek A. Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: A review. LWT – Food Sci Technol. 2007; 40(1): 1−11. CrossRef
  34. Silaste ML, Rantala M, Alfthan G, Aro A, Kesäniemi YA. Plasma homocysteine concentration is decreased by dietary intervention. Br J Nutr. 2003 Mar;89(3):295-301. PubMed, CrossRef
  35. Chopra M, Gu GG, Singh S. Mutations affecting the delayed rectifier potassium current in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2000 Jun;14(2):107-23. PubMed, CrossRef

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.