Ukr.Biochem.J. 2020; Volume 92, Issue 6, Nov-Dec, pp. 119-125


Protective effects of hexane fraction of Costus afer leaves against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino wistar rats

G. N. Anyasor*, O. O. Aramide, O. S. Shokunbi

Department of Biochemistry, School of Basic Medical Sciences,
Benjamin S. Carson (Snr.) College of Health and Medical Sciences, Babcock University,
Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria;

Received: 13 July 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020

Arsenite is a toxic metallic pollutant known to cause hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic injuries. Costus afer Ker Gawl. is an indigenous medicinal plant used as therapy for numerous tissue disorders. Thus, this study investigated the protective potential of C. afer hexane leaf fraction (CALHF) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatic and renal injuries in albino rats. Twenty-five male albino rats were randomly distributed into five groups of five rats each. Group 1: rats administered orally with 0.5 ml of 0.9% saline; Group 2: untreated rats induced with 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) sodium arsenite (i.p.); Group 3: rats induced with sodium arsenite and treated with 10 mg/kg b.w. silymarin (hepatoprotective drug); Group 4 and 5: rats induced with sodium arsenite and treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. CALHF, respectively. CALHF was orally administered daily, while sodium arsenite was administered every 48 hours for 14 days. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected to estimate hepatic and nephrotic functions. Hepatic and renal function tests showed that 100 and 200 mg/kg CALHF and 10 mg/kg silymarin treated animals had significantly reduced (P < 0.05) plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and urea levels, when compared with those of untreated animals. C. afer hexane leaf fraction exhibited hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects against sodium arsenite induced toxicity in rats.

Keywords: , , , ,


  1. Khairul I, Wang QQ, Jiang YH, Wang C, Naranmandura H. Metabolism, toxicity and anticancer activities of arsenic compounds. Oncotarget. 2017;8(14):23905-23926. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  2. Zwolak I. The Role of Selenium in Arsenic and Cadmium Toxicity: an Updated Review of Scientific Literature. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020;193(1):44-63.
    PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  3. Jomova K, Jenisova Z, Feszterova M, Baros S, Liska J, Hudecova D, Rhodes CJ, Valko M. Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. J Appl Toxicol. 2011;31(2):95-107.  PubMed, CrossRef
  4. Tsuji JS,  Chang ET, Gentry PR, Clewell HJ, Boffetta P, Cohen SM. Dose-response for assessing the cancer risk of inorganic arsenic in drinking water: the scientific basis for use of a threshold approach. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2019;49(1):36-84. PubMed, CrossRef
  5. Rani V, Yadav U. Free radicals in human health and disease. 2015. CrossRef
  6. Owumi SE, Odunola OA, Gbadegesin MA, Nulah KL. Protective effect of Juglans nigra on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2013;5(3):183-188. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  7. Adil M, Kandhare AD, Visnagri A, Bodhankar SL. Naringin ameliorates sodium arsenite-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in rats: decisive role of KIM-1, Caspase-3, TGF-β, and TNF-α. Ren Fail. 2015;37(8):1396-1407. PubMed, CrossRef
  8. Hu Y, Li J, Lou B, Wu R, Wang G, Lu C, Wang H, Pi J, Xu Y. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Arsenic Toxicity. Biomolecules. 2020;10(2):240. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  9. Chandranayagam C, Veeraraghavan G, Subash A, Vasanthi HR. Restoration of arsenite induced hepato-toxicity by crude tannin rich fraction of Theobroma cacao in Sprague Dawley rats. Food Res Int. 2013;50(1): 46-54. CrossRef
  10. Wang A, Li M, Huang H, Xiao Z, Shen J, Zhao Y, Yin J, Kaboli PJ, Cao J, Cho CH, Wang Y, Li J, Wu X. A review of Penthorum chinense Pursh for hepatoprotection: Traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials. J Ethnopharmacol. 2020;251:112569. PubMed, CrossRef
  11. Federico A, Dallio M, Loguercio C. Silymarin/silybin and chronic liver disease: a marriage of many years. Molecules. 2017;22(2):191. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  12. Govind P, Sahni YP. A review on the hepatoprotective activity of silymarin. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm. 2011; 2(1): 75-79.
  13. Pradhan SC, Girish C. Hepatoprotective herbal drug, silymarin from experimental pharmacology to clinical medicine. Indian J Med Res. 2006;124(5):491-504. PubMed
  14. Polyak SJ, Morishima C, Lohmann V, Pal S, Lee DYW, Liu Y, Graf TN, Oberlies NH. Identification of hepatoprotective flavonolignans from silymarin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107(13):5995-5999. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  15. Anaga AO, Njoku CJ, Ekejiuba ES, Esiaka MN, Asuzu IU. Investigations of the methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer. Ker for pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(2-3):242-248. PubMed, CrossRef
  16. Boison D, Ayefoumi Adinortey C, Babanyinah GK, Quasie O,  Agbeko R, Wiabo-Asabil GK, Adinortey MB. Costus afer: A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Data in support of Its Medicinal Relevance. Scientifica (Cairo). 2019;2019:3732687. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  17. Anyasor G, Obukohwo E, Adenike O. Bioactive compounds in Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves and stem fractions protect against calcium ion-induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Am J Med Sci. 2017; 1(1):21-26. CrossRef
  18. Ezejiofor AN, Udowelle NA, Orisakwe OE. Nephroprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer Ker gawl on cyclosporin-a (Csa) induced nephrotoxicity. Clin Phytosci. 2016;2:11. CrossRef
  19. Anyasor GN, Onajobi FD, Osilesi O, Adebawo OO. Phytochemical Constituents in Hexane Fraction of Costus afer Ker Gawl. Stem. Vedic Res Int Phytomed. 2014; 2(3): 66-72. CrossRef
  20. Behera A, Kumar S, Jena PK. Nutritional and pharmacological importances of genus Costus: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2016;7(5):1866-1873.  CrossRef
  21. Anyasor GN, Onajobi F, Osilesi O, Adebawo O, Oboutor EM. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Costus afer Ker Gawl. hexane leaf fraction in arthritic rat models. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155(1):543-551. PubMed, CrossRef
  22. Anyasor GN, Onajobi F, Osilesi O, Adebawo O, Efere M O. Evaluation of Costus afer Ker Gawl. in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and its chemical constituents identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. J Coast Life Med. 2015;3(2):132-138. CrossRef
  23. Sankar P, Telang AG, Kalaivanan R, Karunakaran V, Manikam K, Sarkar SN. Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol. 2015;30(6):628-637. PubMed, CrossRef
  24. Anyasor GN, Ajagunna A. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Garcinia kola Heckel stem bark extract and triterpenoid fraction against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rat models. J Biol Act Prod Nat. 2017;7(4):251-269. CrossRef
  25. Turk E,  Kandemir FM, Yildirim S, Caglayan C, Kucukler S, Kuzu M. Protective Effect of Hesperidin on Sodium Arsenite-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019;189(1):95-108. PubMed, CrossRef
  26. Bhattacharya S. Medicinal plants and natural products in amelioration of arsenic toxicity: a short review. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):349-354.
    PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  27. Uhunmwangho E, Rasaq N, Osikoya I. Hepatoprotective effects of hexane root extract of Alchornea laxiflora in sodium arsenate toxicity in wistar albino rats. CHRISMED J Health Res. 2018; 5(1): 38-42.  CrossRef
  28. Shen S, Li XF, Cullen WR, Weinfeld M, Le XC. Arsenic binding to proteins. Chem Rev. 2013;113(10):7769-7792. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  29. Hussain A, Raveendran VA, Kundu S, Samanta T, Shunmugam R, Pal D, Sarma JD. Mechanisms of Arsenic-Induced Toxicity with Special Emphasis on Arsenic-Binding Proteins. In Arsenic-Analytical and Toxicological Studies. 2018;10(2). CrossRef
  30. Althaiban MA. Evaluation of renaoprotective effect of Costus afer leaf extract on rats  exposed to cyclosporine: antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. J Biochem Technol. 2019;10(2):1-7.
  31. Ezejiofor AN, Orish CN, Orisakwe OE. Costus afer ker gawl leaves against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2014;8(4):310-313. PubMed

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.