Tag Archives: aging

Fructose as a factor of carbonyl and oxidative stress development and accelerated aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

L. М. Lozinska, H. М. Semchyshyn

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
е-mail: semchyshyn@pu.if.ua

Excessive and prolonged consumption of fructose may lead to the development of metabolic disorders. However, the mechanisms of  disturbances are still discussed. In the present work, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model to compare the effects of prolonged consumption of different concentrations of glucose and fructose on certain physiology-biochemical parameters of eukaryotes. It has been shown that the yeast growth, their metabolic activity, intracellular level of glycogen and oxidized proteins were higher in cells grown on fructose. The observation is consistent with the data on a higher in vitro ability of fructose than glucose to initiate glycation which products of which are highly reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds and activated oxygen forms. Thus the intensity of carbonyl and oxidative stress is higher in cells grown on fructose. This can explain a higher rate of aging of yeast consuming fructose as a source of carbon and energy as compared to cells growing on glucose. However, carbohydrate restriction used in this study hampered the accumulation of glycogen and oxidized proteins and did not reveal any difference between markers of aging and carbonyl and oxidative stress in yeast grown on glucose and fructose.

The effect of thymic mesenchymal stromal cells on arginase activity and nitric oxide produced by mouse macrophages

R. S. Dovgiy1,2, I. S. Nikolsky3, L. M. Skivka1

1Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Institute of Gerontology, NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3State Institute of Genetic and Regenerative
Medicine NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: romandovgiy@gmail.com

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) gained much attention due to their therapeutic properties, media­ted largely by anti-inflammatory action. We aimed to investigate the capacity of MSC obtained from young mice to modulate arginine metabolism of macrophages from old animals. Bone marrow cells obtained from young and aged mice were cocultivated with MSC in the presence of M-CSF. Nitric oxide production was analyzed in supernatants by Griess reaction, and arginase activity was measured in cell lysates. We have found that arginase activity was significantly lower in macrophages isolated from old mice as compared to young animals (P ˂ 0.05). Syngeneic MSC addition markedly stimulated arginase activity in macrophages from both young and aged mice (P ˂ 0.001), with greater effect in old animals. There were no significant differences in nitric oxide level between groups. In summary, there was more pronounced anti-inflammatory shift in macrophage metabolism in aged animals upon cocultivation with MSC.

Influence of polymicroelement preparation Esmin on hydrogen sulfide levels and indices of pro- and antioxidant system in the rat myocardium of different age

N. V. Zaichko1, A. S. Olhovskiy1, A. V. Melnik1,
P. A. Yurchenko1, A. S. Grigorieva2, N. F. Konahovich2

1Pirogov Vinnitsa National Medical University, Ukraine;
2SI Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology,
Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine;
e-mail: nzaichko@mail.ru

The influence of microelement preparation Esmin on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, activity of H2S -producing enzymes and indices of pro-/antioxidant system in the myocardium of different age rats were investigated. In the process of aging the levels­ of H2S and activities of H2S-producing enzymes (cysteine aminotransferase, cystathionine-γ-lyase) are reduced in the myocardium; the pro-/antioxidant balance is destabilized (NADPH-oxidase activity is increased and thioredoxin reductase activity is decreased). Esmin administration effectively reduces age-related changes in the myocardium of old rats: increases H2S levels and activity of H2S-producing enzymes, restores pro-/antioxidant balance.

Defects in tor regulatory complexes retard aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development in yeast Sассharomyces cerevisiae

B. V. Homza, R. A. Vasylkovska, H. М. Semchyshyn

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
е-mail: semchyshyn@pu.if.ua

TOR signaling pathway first described in yeast S. сerevisiae is the highly conserved regulator of eukaryotic cell growth, aging and stress resistance. The effect of nitrogen sources, in particular amino acids, on the activity of TOR signaling pathway is well studied, however its relation to carbohydrates is poor understood. The aim of the present study is expanding of our understanding of potential role of TOR regulatory complexes in development of carbonyl/oxidative stress that can result from yeast cultivation on glucose and fructose. It has been shown that the level of α-dicarbonyl compounds and protein carbonyl groups increased with time of yeast cultivation and was higher in cells grown on fructose that demonstrated their accelerated aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development as compared with cells grown on glucose. The strains defective in TOR proteins cultivated in the presence of glucose as well as fructose demonstrated lower markers of the stress and aging than parental strain. Thus these data confirmed the previous conclusion on fructose more potent ability to cause carbonyl/oxidative stress and accelerated aging in S. cerevisiae as compared with glucose. However, defects in TOR regulatory complexes retard aging and development of the stress in yeast independent on the type of carbohydrate in the cultivation medium.