Tag Archives: lipid peroxidation

Oxidative stress in blood leukocytes, pro/antioxidanт status and fatty acids composition of pancreas lipids at experimental acute pancreatitis in rats

I. B. Pryvrotska1, T. M. Kuchmerovska2

1I. Нorbachevsky Ternopyl State Medical University, Ukraine;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: irina.privrotska@yandex.uа

In an experimental model of acute pancreatitis (АP) in rats no alteration in leukocyte’s viability was found by flow cytometry as compared to control. After 1 day of AP production of reactive oxygen forms in granulocytes was increased more than 5 times, but after 3 days their level was decreased. Alterations of pro/antioxidant status and specific changes in the fatty acid composition in the pancreas were established. With the development of AP, the processes of lipids peroxidation were intensified while antioxidant system was altered, that was evidenced by inflammation in the pancreas. In these conditions, the increase of phospholipase A2 activity was accompanied by significant changes of fatty acid composition of the total lipids in the pancreas. This increased relative total content of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic, palmitic and stearic acid increased, while the total content of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids ω-3 (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, dokozapentayenoic, docosahexaenoic) decreased. The preparation containing ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids partially normalized the lipid and fatty acids composition as well as prooxidant-antioxidant system.

Influence of oxidative stress on the level of genes expression TGFB1 and HGF in rat liver upon long-term gastric hypochlorhydria and administration of multiprobiotic Symbiter

K. O. Dvorshchenko, O. O. Bernyk, A. S. Dranitsina, S. A. Senin, L. I. Ostapchenko

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: k21037@gmail.com

Free-radical processes upon long-term omeprazole-induced gastric hypochlorhydria in the rat liver were researched. Intensification of oxidative processes in the liver tissue upon gastric hypoacid state was established: overproduction of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the quantitative changes of lipid functional groups, increased level of lipid peroxidation products, and augmentation of xanthine oxidase activity. The expression of Tgfb1 gene increased, while the expression of Hgf gene was not detected upon long-term suppression of gastric acid secretion of hydrochloric acid by omeprazole that indicated possible development of liver fibrosis. Abovementioned parameters were only partially restored to control values in the case of simultaneous administration of multiprobiotic “Symbiter® acidophilic” concentrated with omeprazole, thus indicating the ability of this preparation to counteract the development of oxidative damages in liver tissues upon long-term gastric hypoacidic conditions.

Laureates of the Palladin Prize of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (1989–1990)

R. P. Vynogradova, V. M. Danilova

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

In 1989 N. K. Berdinskikh and S. P. Zaletok received the Palladin Prize of NAS of Ukraine for the monograph “Polyamines and tumor growth” and in1990 A. M. Belous, V. A. Bondarenko and O. K. Gulevsky were awarded the prize for the series of works “Studies of the mechanisms of cryoinjury of biological membranes” and the monograph “Biomembrane barrier properties at low temperatures”.

Changes in glutathione system and lipid peroxidation in rat blood during the first hour after chlorpyrifos exposure

V. P. Rosalovsky, S. V. Grabovska, Yu. T. Salyha

Institute of Animal Biology, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
e-mail: ros.volodymyr@gmail.com

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a highly toxic organophosphate compound, widely used as an active substance of many insecticides. Along with the anticholinesterase action, CPF may affect other biochemical mechanisms, particularly through disrupting pro- and antioxidant balance and inducing free-radical oxidative stress. Origins and occurrence of these phenomena are still not fully understood. The aim of our work was to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos on key parameters of glutathione system and on lipid peroxidation in rat blood in the time dynamics during one hour after exposure. We found that a single exposure to 50 mg/kg chlorpyrifos caused a linear decrease in butyryl cholinesterase activity, increased activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, alterations in the levels of glutathione, TBA-active products and lipid hydroperoxides during 1 hour after poisoning. The most significant changes in studied parameters were detected at the 15-30th minutes after chlorpyrifos exposure.

The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails under nitrate actions and correction by the amaranth’s seeds

S. I. Tsekhmistrenko, N. V. Ponomarenko

Bila Tserkva State Agrarian University, Ukraine;
e-mail: ponomarenkon@ukr.net

Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail’s pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth’s seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using­ of amaranth’s seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail’s pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the abili­ty of amaranth’s seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail’s pancreas under nitrates influence.

Stress-responsive systems in rat pancreas upon long-term gastric hypochlorhydria and administration of multiprobiotic “Symbiter®”

K. O. Dvorshchenko, S. Ye. Vakal, A. S. Dranitsina, S. A. Senin, L. I. Ostapchenko

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: k21037@gmail.com

The intensity of free-radical processes upon long-term omeprazole-induced hypoacidity in the rat pancreas was investigated. Significant violation of oxidative-antioxidative balance in pancreatic tissue upon gastric hypochlorhydria was established: overproduction of superoxide anion, quantitative changes of lipid functional groups, increased level of lipid peroxidation products, augmentation of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase activity, as well as depletion of catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity and reduced glutathione content. The inflected expression of Cckbr gene in the rat pancreas upon these conditions was also observed, thus suggesting an increased risk of pathological changes development in the gland. Abovementioned parameters were only partially restored to control values in the case of simultaneous administration of multiprobiotic “Symbiter®” with omeprazole, thus indicating the ability of this preparation to efficiently counteract the development of oxidative damages in pancrea­tic tissues upon long-term hypoacidic conditions.

Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypoclorite

O. I. Bishko, N. P. Harasym, D. I. Sanahurs’kyj

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
e-mail: oliabishko@gmail.com

There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxi­de dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and Н2О2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose Н2О2 and hydroperoxides were inhibi­ted. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase of catalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the conside­rable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation

M. M. Yaremchuk, M. V. Dyka, D. I. Sanagursky

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,Ukraine;
e-mail: m.yaremchuk@i.ua

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products – lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05) is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization

Yu. V. Tseyslyer1, О. M. Podpalova2, N. Е. Nurishchenko1, V. S. Маrtyniuk1

1ESC Institute of Biology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: yuliya.tseysler@gmail.com,
2Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: olgapodpalova@gmail.com

The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skele­tal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

Functions of tocopherols in the cells of plants and other photosynthetic organisms

V. M. Mokrosnop

M. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: VictoryM6@yandex.ua

Tocopherol synthesis has only been observed in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae and some cyanobacteria). Tocopherol is synthesized in the inner membrane of chloroplasts and distributed between chloroplast membranes, thylakoids and plastoglobules. Physiological significance of tocopherols for human and animal is well-studied, but relatively little is known about their function in plant organisms. Among the best characterized functions of tocopherols in cells is their ability to scavenge and quench reactive oxygen species and fat-soluble by-products of oxidative stress. There are the data on the participation of different mechanisms of α-tocopherol action in protecting photosystem II (PS II) from photoinhibition both by deactivation of singlet oxygen produced by PS II and by reduction of proton permeability of thylakoid membranes, leading to acidification of lumen under high light conditions and activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Additional biological activity of tocopherols, independent of its antioxidant functions have been demonstrated. Basic mechanisms for these effects are connected with the modulation of signal transduction pathways by specific tocopherols and, in some instances, by transcriptional activation of gene expression.