Tag Archives: mRNA expression

ERN1 modifies the effect of glutamine deprivation on tumor growth related factors expression in U87 glioma cells

O. H. Minchenko, A. P. Kharkova, O. S. Hnatiuk, O. Y. Luzina, I. V. Kryvdiuk, A. Y. Kuznetsova

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com

The expression of a subset of genes encoding important tumor growth related factors in U87 glioma cells with ERN1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) loss of function as well as upon glutamine deprivation was studied. It was shown that glutamine deprivation down-regulated the expression level of ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6), EIF2AK3/PERK (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3), GLO1 (glyoxalase I), BIRC5 (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5), and RAB5C (RAB5C, a member of RAS oncogene family) mRNAs in control glioma cells. At the same time, the expression level of HSPB8 (heat shock 22kDa protein 8) and HSPA5/GRP78 (heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5) mRNAs was resistant to glutamine withdrawal in these glioma cells. It was also shown that inhibition of ERN1, which controled cell proliferation and tumor growth, modified the effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression levels of most studied genes in U87 glioma cells: up-regulated the expression of ATF6 and HSPA5 genes and enhanced sensitivity of EIF2AK3 and BIRC5 genes to glutamine withdrawal. Furthermore, the expression of all studied genes, except EIF2AK3, was down-regulated in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells in the presence of glutamine. It was demonstrated that glutamine deprivation affected the expression of most studied genes in ERN1 depen­dent manner and that these changes possibly contributed to the suppression of glioma growth from cells without ERN1 signaling enzyme function.

Expression of ubiquitin specific peptidase and ATG7 genes in U87 glioma cells upon glutamine deprivation

O. V. Halkin1, D. O. Minchenko1,2, О. O. Riabovol1,
V. V. Telychko1, О. O. Ratushna1, O. H. Minchenko1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied the effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression of genes encoding for ubiquitin specific peptidases (USP) and ubiquitin activating enzyme E1-like protein/autophagy related 7 (GSA7/ATG7) in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1). It was shown that exposure of control glioma cells (transfected by empty vector) upon glutamine deprivation led to suppression of USP1 and ATG7 mRNA expression and up-regulated USP25 mRNA. At the same time, glutamine deprivation did not significantly change USP4, USP10, USP14, and USP22 gene expressions in these cells. Inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells increased effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression of USP1 gene and introduced sensitivity of USP4 and USP14 genes to this condition. Therefore, glutamine deprivation affected the expression level of most studied genes in gene specific manner in relation to the functional activity of IRE1 enzyme, a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which controls cell proliferation and tumor growth.

Expression of tumor growth related genes in IRE1 knockdown U87 glioma cells: effect of hypoxia

O. H. Minchenko1, O. Y. Luzina1, O. S. Hnatiuk1,
D. O. Minchenko1,2, I. A. Garmash1, O. O. Ratushna1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry,  National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied the effect of IRE1 signaling enzyme knockdown as well as hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding the important tumor growth related proteins (BRCA1, DEK, BCL2L1, COL6A1, TPD52, HOMER3, and GNPDA1) in U87 glioma cells. It was shown that the expression level of breast cancer 1 early onset (BRCA1) and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) mRNAs are strongly up-regulated in U87 glioma cells by down-regulation of IRE1 expression in comparison with the control cells. At the same time the expression level of collagen, type VI, alpha 1 (COL6A1), DEK oncogene (DEK), glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 1 (GNPDA1) and homer homolog 3 (HOMER3) was significantly down-regulated in glioma cells under these experimental conditions. It was also shown that hypoxia up-regulated the expression level of COL6A1 and TPD52 mRNAs and down-regulated – BRCA1, DEK, and GNPDA1 mRNAs in control glioma cells and that down-regulation of IRE1, which control cell proliferation and tumor growth, modified the effect of hypoxia on the expression of COL6A1, DEK, BCL2L1, HOMER3, and GNPDA1 genes. The present study demonstrated that hypoxia affected the expression of most studied genes in IRE1-dependent manner.

IRE1 knockdown modifies hypoxic regulation of cathepsins and LONP1 genes expression in U87 glioma cells

O. H. Minchenko1, О. O. Riabovol1, O. V. Halkin1,
D. O. Minchenko1,2, О. O. Ratushna1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding for LONP1/PRSS15 and cathepsins in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1). It was shown that hypoxia up-regulated the expression of CTSA, CTSB, CTSD, CTSF, CTSK, and LONP1 genes and down-regulated the expression of CTSC, CTSL, CTSO, and CTSS genes in control glioma cells (transfected by empty vector). Inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in these glioma cells modified effect of hypoxia on the expression of most studied genes: eliminated the effect of hypoxia on CTSA, and LONP1 genes, introduced reverse changes on CTSD and CTSS genes, reduced – on CTSF and CTSK genes, and enhanced – on CTSB and CTSL genes. Therefore, hypoxia affected the expression level of most studied genes in relation to the functional activity of IRE1 enzyme, a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which control cell proliferation and tumor growth.

Effect of chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles on the expression of NAMPT, E2F8, FAS, TBX3, IL13RA2, and UPS7 genes in mouse liver

O. H. Minchenko1, O. P. Yavorovsky2, N. V. Solokha2,
D. O. Minchenko1,2, A. Y. Kuznetsova1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied the effect of chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles on the expression level of genes encoding important regulatory enzymes and factors (NAMPT, UPS7, E2F8, FAS/TNFSF6, TBX3, and IL13RA2) in mouse liver for evaluation of possible toxic effects of these nanoparticles. It was shown that treatment of mice by titanium nitride nanoparticles (20 nm; 20 mg with food every working day for 2 months) led to up-regulation of the expression of NAMPT, FAS, TBX3, and IL13RA2 genes and to down-regulation of USP7 and E2F8 genes in the liver tissue. Changes for TBX3 and IL13RA2 genes were more significant than for other genes. Furthermore, treatment of mice by chromium disilicide nanoparticles (45 nm; 20 mg with food every working day for 2 months) led to more significant changes in the expression of USP7, E2F8, FAS, and TBX3 genes in comparison to the effect of titanium nitride nanoparticles. At the same time, effect of titanium nitride nanoparticles on the expression of NAMPT gene in the liver tissue was stronger as compared to chromium disilicide nanoparticles. Additionally, treatment of mice by chromium disilicide nanoparticles did not change significantly the expression of IL13RA2 gene in the liver. The present study demonstrates that chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles had variable effects on the expression of most studied genes in a gene specific manner, which possibly reflect genotoxic activities of studied nanoparticles, but molecular mechanisms of observed changes in gene expressions warrant further investigation.

Inhibition of IRE1 modifies hypoxic regulation of G6PD, GPI, TKT, TALDO1, PGLS and RPIA genes expression in U87 glioma cells

O. H. Minchenko1, I. A. Garmash1, D. O. Minchenko1,2,
A. Y. Kuznetsova1, O. O. Ratushna1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression level of mRNA of the basic enzymes of pentose-phosphate cycle (G6PD, TKT, TALDO1, PGLS and RPIA) and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1). It was shown that hypoxia leads to up-regulation of the expression of GPI and PGLS genes and to down-regulation of TALDO1 and RPIA genes in control glioma cells. Changes for GPI gene were more significant than for other genes. At the same time, inhibition of IRE1 modified the effect of hypoxia on the expression of all studied genes. In particular, it increased sensitivity to hypoxia of G6PD and TKT genes expression and suppressed the effect of hypoxia on the expression of GPI and RPIA genes. Additionally, inhibition of IRE1 eliminated hypoxic regulation of PGLS gene and did not change significantly effect of hypoxia on the expression of TALDO1 gene in glioma cells. Present study demonstrated that hypoxia, which often contributes to tumor growth, affects the expression of most studied genes and inhibition of IRE1 modified the hypoxic regulation of pentose-phosphate cycle gene expressions in a gene specific manner and thus possibly contributes to slower glioma growth, but several aspects of this regulation warrant further investigation.

Hypoxic regulation of MYBL1, MEST, TCF3, TCF8, GTF2B, GTF2F2 and SNAI2 genes expression in U87 glioma cells upon IRE1 inhibition

O. H. Minchenko1, D. O. Tsymbal1, D. O. Minchenko1,2, O. O. Kubaychuk3

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine

We investigated the impact of IRE1/ERN1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1/endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) knockdown on hypoxic regulation of the expression of a subset of proliferation and migration-related genes in U87 glioma cells. It was shown that hypoxia leads to up-regulation of the expression of MEST and SNAI2, to down-regulation – of MYBL1, TCF8 and GTF2F2 genes at the mRNA level in control glioma cells. At the same time hypoxia did not affect the expression of TCF3 and GTF2B transcription factor genes. In turn, inhibition of IRE1 modified the effect of hypoxia on the expression of all studied genes, except MYBL1 and GTF2B. For instance, IRE1 knockdown decreased sensitivity to hypoxia of the expression of MEST, TCF8 and SNAI2 genes and increased sensitivity to hypoxia of GTF2F2 expression. At the same time, IRE1 inhibition introduced sensitivity to hypoxia of the expression of TCF3 gene in glioma cells. The present study demonstrated that the inhibition of IRE1 in glioma cells affected the hypoxic regulation of the expression of studied genes in various directions, though hypoxic conditions did not abolish the effect of IRE1 inhibition on the expression of respective genes. To the contrary, in case of SNAI2, GTF2F2 and MEST hypoxic conditions magnified the effect of IRE1 inhibition on the expression of respective genes in glioma cells.

Expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP7, NOV, CYR61, WISP1 and WISP2 genes in U87 glioma cells in glutamine deprivation condition

O. H. Minchenko1, A. P. Kharkova1, D. O. Minchenko1,2, L. L. Karbovskyi1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied gene expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in U87 glioma cells upon glutamine deprivation depending on the inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1), a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. We have shown that exposure of control glioma cells upon glutamine deprivation leads to down-regulation of NOV/IGFBP9, WISP1 and WISP2 gene expressions and up-regulation of CYR61/IGFBP10 gene expression at the mRNA level. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP6 and IGFBP7 genes in control glioma cells was resistant to glutamine deprivation. It was also shown that the inhibition of IRE1 modifies the effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression of all studied genes. Thus, the inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme enhances the effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression of CYR61 and WISP1 genes and suppresses effect of the deprivation on WISP2 gene expression in glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of IRE1 introduces sensitivity of the expression of IGFBP6 and IGFBP7 genes to glutamine deprivation and removes this sensitivity to NOV gene. We have also demonstrated that the expression of all studied genes in glioma cells growing with glutamine is regulated by IRE1 signaling enzyme, because the inhibition of IRE1 significantly down-regulates IGFBP6 and NOV genes and up-regulates IGFBP7, CYR61, WISP1, and WISP2 genes as compared to control glioma cells. The present study demonstrates that glutamine deprivation condition affects most studied IGFBP and WISP gene expressions in relation to IRE1 signaling enzyme function and possibly contributes to slower glioma cell proliferation upon inhibition of IRE1.

Effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells

O. H. Minchenko1, О. O. Riabovol1, D. O. Tsymbal1, D. O. Minchenko1,2, О. O. Ratushna1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells under the inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1), which controls cell proliferation and tumor growth as a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. It was shown that hypoxia down-regulated gene expression of malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2), malic enzyme 2 (ME2), mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (GOT2), and subunit B of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) in control (transfected by empty vector) glioma cells in a gene specific manner. At the same time, the expression level of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHD) genes in these cells does not significantly change in hypoxic conditions. It was also shown that the inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells decreases the effect of hypoxia on the expression of ME2, GOT2, and SDHB genes  and introduces the sensitivity of IDH2 gene to hypoxia. Furthermore, the expression of all studied genes depends on IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in gene specific manner, because ІRE1 knockdown significantly decreases their expression in normoxic conditions, except for IDH2 gene, which expression level is strongly up-regulated. Therefore, changes in the expression level of nuclear genes encoding ME2, MDH2, IDH2, SDHB, SDHD, and GOT2 proteins possibly reflect metabolic reprogramming of mitochondria by hypoxia and IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and correlate with suppression of glioma cell proliferation under inhibition of the IRE1 enzyme function.

Effect of glutamine or glucose deprivation on the expression of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase genes in glioma cell line U87 and its subline with suppressed activity of signaling enzyme of endoplasmic reticulum–nuclei-1

D. O. Minchenko1,2,3, O. V. Hubenya1, B. M. Terletsky1,
M. Moenner3, O. H. Minchenko1,3

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ominchenko@yahoo.com;
2National O. O. Bohomoletz Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3INSERM U920 Molecular Mechanisms of Angiogenesis Laboratory,
University Bordeaux 1, Talence, France

Ischemia has been shown to induce a set of complex intracellular signaling events known as the unfolded protein response, which is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum–nuclei-1 sensing enzyme. We have studied the expression of several cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase genes which participate in the control of cell cycle and proliferation under ischemic conditions (glucose or glutamine deprivation) in endoplasmic reticulum–nuc­lei 1-deficient glioma cells. It was shown that blockade of endoplasmic reticulum–nuclei signaling enzyme-1, the key endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, leads to an increase of the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 and cyclin A2, D3, E2 and G2 genes but suppresses cyclin D1. Moreover, the expression level of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 as well as cyclin A2, D3 and E2 mRNAs is significantly decreased under glucose or glutamine deprivation conditions both in control and endoplasmic reticulum–nuclei-1-deficient glioma cells. However, cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and -5 mRNA expressions is increased, but in glucose deprivation conditions only.  Results of this study have shown that the expression of most tested genes of encoded cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases is dependent on endoplasmic reticulum–nuclei-1 signaling enzyme function both in normal and glutamine and glucose deprivation conditions and possibly participates in cell adaptive response to endoplasmic reticulum stress associated with ischemia.