Tag Archives: stress

Biochemical mechanisms of chromium action in the human and animal organism

R. Ya. Iskra, V. G. Yanovych

Institute of Animal Biology, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Lviv, Ukraine;
e-mail: ruslana_iskra@inenbiol.com.ua

Modern data concerning biologic characteristics of chromium (Cr3+) its placement in nature, accessibility and metabolic action of its different forms in humans and animals is presented in this survey. Essentiality of chromium for humans is emphasized, data about consumption norms of this microelement and its use for curing different diseases especially diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis of vessels are presented. The biochemical mechanisms of Cr3+ effect on the metabolism in the human and animal organism are analyzed. It is shown that the organism reacts to chrome additions by the change of some metabolism links. Chrome influences positively growth and development of foetus, stimulates metabolism of glucose and insulin in the humans and animals. However, at the set chromium requirements it is necessary to take into account its low availability in food, high release of Cr3+ from the organism under the influence of stress factors, considerable decline of its level with age, and also in the period of pregnancy and lactation. Therefore experimental researches of introduction of Cr3+ additions to the diet of people and forage of animals taking into account their body mass, age and clinical state, can explain the biochemical mechanisms of biological action of this microelement.

Carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism condition in the rat tissue under experimental rhabdomyolysis

P. A. Kaliman, S. M. Okhrimenko

Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine;
e-mail: s.okhrimenko@mail.ru

Some effects of glycerol injection on indices of the condition of the thiol-disulfide system as well as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in rats in vivo were studied. A decrease was revealed in levels of non-protein SH-groups in the liver, kidney and heart, as well as of protein SH-groups in the kidney and heart of rats following glycerol injection. That might be connected with SH-group oxidation under the excessive arrival of free haem into tissues under rhabdomyolysis. A decrease in glycogen and  increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver were observed. Activation of nitrogenous metabolism following glycerol injection is indicated by the increase of aminotransferase activity in organs, and concentration of blood urea. High concentration of creatinine in the rat serum can reflect malfiltration in kidneys.

Redox-sensitive transcription factors EGR-1 and SP1 IN the pathogenesis of experimental gastric ulcer

S. M. Beregovyi1, T. M. Chervinska1, A. S. Dranitsina1,
S. Szabo2, G. M. Tolstanova1

1Educational and Scientific Centre Institute of Biology,
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
2University of California, Irvine, USA;
e-mail: gtolstanova@gmail.com

Changes in redox status of gastric mucosa cells are the main pathogenic factor of gastric erosion and gastric ulcer development. Pro-oxidants can affect cell transcription activity via changes in redox-sensitive transcription factors. Egr-1 and Sp-1 may regulate the transcription of genes that are associated with the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer (growth factors, cell cycle regulators, etc.). The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible involvement of zinc-finger transcription factors Egr-1 & Sp-1 in the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric lesions caused by aspirin administration and stress. Gastric ulcer was induced in male rats (180-220 g) by immobilization stress combined with water-immersion (IMO-WI) or aspirin gavage (10 mg/100 g). The rats were euthanized 20 min, 1 hour, or 3 hours following the ulcerogenic factor exposure. Protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR; levels of SH-groups of proteins were determined by method of Ellman et al. Development of gastric ulcer lesions was associated with twofold (P < 0.05) decrease in concentration of protein SH-groups in the rat gastric mucosa. These changes were accompanied by significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of Egr-1 mRNA and protein in both gastric ulcer models, and the changes in IMO-WI were more profound. Increased levels of Egr-1 were associated with the decrease in Sp1 protein levels. We showed for the first time the competitive interaction between redox-sensitive transcription factors Egr-1 and Sp1 in the early phases of gastric ulcer development, which might facilitate inducible transcriptional activity of Egr-1 at the expense of reduction in Sp1 activity.

Analysis of creatine kinase activity with evaluation of protein expression under the effect of heat and hydrogen peroxide

A. D. Rakhmetov1, Lee Sang Pil2, L. I. Ostapchenko1, Chae Ho Zoon2

1Education and Science Center Institute of Biology Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea;
e-mail: anar.rakhmetov@gmail.com

Protein oxidation has detrimental effects on the brain functioning, which involves inhibition of the crucial enzyme, brain type creatine kinase (CKBB), responsible for the CK/phosphocreatine shuttle system. Here we demonstrate a susceptibility of CKBB to several ordinary stressors. In our study enzymatic activity of purified recombinant brain-type creatine kinase was evaluated. We assayed 30 nM concentration of CKBB under normal and stress conditions. In the direction of phosphocreatine formation hydrogen peroxide and heat treatments altered CKBB activity down to 26 and 14%, respectively. Also, examination of immunoblotted membrane patterns by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and western blot analysis showed a decrease in expression levels of intrinsic CKBB enzyme in HeLa and A549 cells. Hence, our results clearly show that cytosolic CKBB is extremely sensitive to oxidative stress and heat induced inactivation. Therefore, due to its susceptibility, this enzyme may be defined as a potential target in brain damage.