Ukr.Biochem.J. 2013; Volume 85, Issue 6, Nov-Dec, pp. 197-208


Biological effects of thyroid hormones

T. S. Saatov, A. A. Abduavaliev

Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Tashkent;

The article presents the findings from the study on multifunctional effects of thyroid hormones in relation to normal and malignantly transformed tissues and cells. Both “rapid” and «slow» effects of thyroid hormones including calorigenic effects and effects over adenylate cyclase – cAMP system have been described.  Thyroxin (Т4) has been established capable to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of cells carrying Т4 receptors on their membranes as well as to change course of metabolic processes under its effect. Spectrum of Т4 targets is quite broad to include not only cells of hormone-producing organs, to name those of the breast and the colon, but also other types of cells to name melanin-containing ones; Т4 effects resulting in reconstruction of presentation of regulatory proteins on the cell membrane surface to ultimately activate the process of cell apoptosis.  Our findings help determine alternative paths for hormonal regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis of cells of hormone-dependent tumors, breast cancer, in particular, upon impossibility to regulate the processes by conventional methods. This facilitates understanding mechanisms for activation of signal system of the breast cancer’s cells by hormones upon changes in expression of receptors on the cells’ surface, making possible development of novel strategy for replacement therapy of hormone-dependent tumors upon low efficacy of drug therapy.

Keywords: , , , , , ,


  1. Turakulov YaKh, Saatov  TS, Kalikov SK et al. С. К. и др. Cyclic nucleotides and the regulation of cell metabolism. Publish. “FAN” UzSSR, Tashkent, 1983. 237 p.
  2. Buchanan J, Tapley DF. Stimulation by thyroxine of amino acid incorporation into mitochondria. Endocrinology. 1966 Jul;79(1):81-9. PubMed, CrossRef
  3. Buchanan I, Tapley DF. In: The Thyroid (S. C. Werner and S. H. Ingbar,ets), Harper, N.Y., 1971. P. 90-92.
  4. Hoch FL. Biochemical actions of thyroid hormones. Physiol Rev. 1962 Oct;42:605-73. PubMed
  5. Sokoloff L, Roberts PA, Januska MM, Kline JE. Mechanisms of stimulation of protein synthesis by thyroid hormones in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1968 Jun;60(2):652-9. PubMed, PubMedCentral
  6. Tata IR. IX-th intern. Congress of biochem, Stockholm, 1973.
  7. Abdukarimov AM. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of regulation of genetic activity of thyroid hormones. Avtoref. dis. … doct. biol. nauk. Tashkent, 1979; 24 p.
  8. Saatov TS. Role of biological membrane lipid component in hormone reception and adenylate cyclase system function. Ukr Biokhim Zhurn. 1981 Mar-Apr;53(2):44-51. Russian. PubMed
  9. Iakovleva NN. Characteristics and mechanism of functioning of thyroid hormone receptors on the plasma membranes. Avtoref. dis. … kand. biol. nauk. Tashkent, 1993; 20 p.
  10. Turakulov YaKh, Khalikov SK, Dalimova SN. Participation cAMP in the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. First All-Union Symposium “Cyclic nucleotides”, Krasnoyarsk, 1976:101-102.
  11. Kakharova OU. Lipids and reception of thyroid hormones of liver and rat brain on the plasma membrane in ontogenesis. Avtoref. dis. … kand. biol. nauk. Tashkent, 1991; 18 p.
  12. Kakharova OU, Gulyamova FYa, Yakovleva NO. The nature of thyroxine binding sites on the PM. Theses of reports of 10th Joint Symposium of the USSR-GDR biochemical societies “Mechanisms of regulation of cellular activity”. Moscow, 1989; 36-37.
  13. Gulyamova FYa, Zaynutdinov BR, Yakovleva NO, Kakharova OU. Theses of Third All-Union Symposium on lipid biochemistry. Moscow, 1987; 50.
  14. Saatov TS, Gulamova FYa, Kakharova O. Characterization of thyroxine receptor from rat liver and brain plasma membranes in ontogenesis, abstracts 20th FEBS conference. Budapesht, 1990. p. 256.
  15. Saatov TS, Zaynutdiniv BR, Muchnik SIe.  Theses of First All-Union biophysics congress. Moscow. 1982;(3):1901.
  16. Gharbi J, Torresani J. High affinity thyroxine binding to purified rat liver plasma membranes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1979 May 14;88(1):170-7. PubMed, CrossRef
  17. Gharbi-Chihi J, Torresani J. Thyroid hormone binding to plasma membrane preparations: studies in different thyroid states and tissues. J Endocrinol Invest. 1981 Apr-Jun;4(2):177-83. PubMed, CrossRef
  18. Varas SM, Muñoz EM, Hapon MB, Aguilera Merlo CI, Giménez MS, Jahn GA. Hyperthyroidism and production of precocious involution in the mammary glands of lactating rats. Reproduction. 2002 Nov;124(5):691-702. PubMed, CrossRef
  19. Jörns A, Tiedge M, Lenzen S. Thyroxine induces pancreatic beta cell apoptosis in rats. Diabetologia. 2002 Jun;45(6):851-5. PubMed, CrossRef
  20. Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, Tsukamura K, Hayakawa Y, Kikumori T, Mase T, Itoh T, Nishikawa M, Hayashi H, Shibata A, Hibi Y, Takahashi M, Narita T. Wakame seaweed suppresses the proliferation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999 Sep;90(9):922-7. PubMedCrossRef
  21. Lowe MN, Plosker GL. Bexarotene. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug;1(4):245-50; discussion 251-2. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  22. Petrovici A, Schmid KW, Faessler A, Pantelica D, Negoita F, Babu BR, Ramayya AV, Hamilton JH, Kormicki J, Chaturvedi L, Ma WC, Zhu SJ, Johnson NR, Lee IY, Baktash C, McGowan FK, Halbert ML, Riley M, Cole JD. High spin states in 68As: Experiment and theory. Phys Rev C Nucl Phys. 1996 May;53(5):2134-2141. PubMed, CrossRef
  23. Cordes N, Rödel F, Rodemann HP. Molecular signaling pathways. Mechanisms and clinical use. Strahlenther Onkol. 2012 Nov;188 Suppl 3:308-11. Review. German. PubMed, CrossRef
  24. Agol VI.  Genetically programmed cell death. Soros Educational J. 1996;(6):20-24.
  25. Chissov V.I., Starinskiy V.V., Kovalev B.N. State and prospects of development of oncologic service in Russia / Hormone-dependent tumors: Reports of 9th All-Union conference of the oncologists. S-Petersburg,2002;17-21.
  26. Pozharissky KM, Leenman EE. Importance of immunohistochemical methods in the determining of the treatment and prognosis of tumor diseases. Arkhiv Patologii. 2000;62(5):3-11.
  27. Tarutinov VI, Dosenko IV, Shpilev SI. Principles of formation of individual plans for the treatment of breast cancer patients considering the basic pathogenic forms of the disease / Guidelines. Kiev:2003;18.

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.