Tag Archives: apoptosis

Cytotoxic effect of Ziziphus Spina-Christi extract alone and in combination with doxorubicin on breast cancer cells

E. S. El-Shafey, E. S. Elsherbiny*

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt;
*e-mail: eslamsamy1@yahoo.com

Received: 17 July 2023; Revised: 23 October 2023;
Accepted: 01 December 2023; Available on-line: 18 December 2023

Ziziphus Spina-Christi (L.) (ZSC) is a traditional Arabian medicinal plant used to treat inflammatory symptoms, swellings and pain since long. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a form of cancer with a poor prognosis owing to the paucity of therapy alternatives. Two of the most critical pathways of TNBC development are Wnt/β-catenin signaling and autophagy. In the present study, we intended to identify the possible mechanisms of the cytotoxic effects mediated by ZSC extract on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and to improve the efficacy of DOX in combination with ZSC. The MTT test was used to estimate cell viability and IC50 values. Apoptosis was detected using AnnexinV-FITC detection kit. ELISA was used to measure caspase-3 levels. Cell cycle and the level of autophagosome marker LC3-II were analysed using flow cytometry. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVOs) formation was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Real-time PCR was used to monitor changes in gene expression of β-catenin and autophagic adapter NBR1. It was shown that ZSC treatment dose-dependently inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis with accompanying elevation of caspase-3 level. Besides ZSC caused a significant elevation in LC3II level and downregulation of NBR1 gene expression with subsequent downregulation of β-catenin gene expression, indicating the inhibition of the oncogenic Wnt pathway. ZSC and DOX combination had synergistic cytotoxic effect by more effective suppression of Wnt pathway and induction of apoptosis and autosis.

Choline derivatives as natural ligands of mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

O. Lykhmus, M. Izmailov, M. Skok*

Department of Molecular Immunology, Palladin Institute of Biochemistry,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: skok@biochem.kiev.ua

Received: 16 March 2023; Revised: 28 April 2023;
Accepted: 05 June 2023; Available on-line: 20 June 2023

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate mitochondria-driven apoptosis; however, their intracellular ligands are unknown. In the present paper, we show that choline and its derivatives (phosphocholine (PC), L-α-glycerophosphocholine (G-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (P-GPC)) dose-dependently influence cytochrome c release from isolated mouse liver mitochondria. Choline inhibited Ca2+-stimulated cytochrome c release, while PC attenuated wortmannin-induced cytochrome c release. Small doses of G-PC and P-GPC (up to 0.1 µM) were protective against either Ca2+ or wortmannin, while larger doses (up to 1 µM) stimulated cytochrome c release by themselves. Choline and PC disrupted interaction of VDAC1, Bax and Bcl-2 with mitochondrial α7 nAChRs and favored their interaction with α9 nAChR subunits. It is concluded that choline metabolites can regulate apoptosis by affecting mitochondrial nAChRs.

Localization and level of proapoptotic protein regulators in a rat lung tissue during development of acute experimental bronchopneumonia

D. S. Ziablitsev1*, A. O. Tykhomyrov2, O. O. Dyadyk3,
S. V. Kolesnikova1, S. V. Ziablitsev1

1Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: denis898@ukr.net

Received: 20 July 2022; Revised: 13 September 2022;
Accepted: 04 November 2022; Available on-line: 14 November 2022

Apoptosis plays an important role in the development of acute inflammatory lung injury (AILI) and its consequences, which can be realized in different cells with distinct intensity and rate. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and expression intensity of apoptosis markers in the lungs of rats in the AILI model with endotracheal introduction of capron thread and LPS. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies against Bax and caspase-3 proteins. It was shown that Bax level increased significantly with the peak on the 7th day. The second peak of Bax 40 dimeric form was noted on the 21st day. The level of both pro-caspase-3 and active caspase-3 was also dramatically increased with a maximum on the 5th day and the second peak of active caspase-3 content was observed on the 21st day. These changes reflected the activation of apoptosis in key trigger periods of AILI during the development of exudative hemorrhagic pneumonia and subsequent fibrotic remodeling of the lungs.

Discovery of cell apoptosis regulation genes: Sydney Brenner, John E. Sulston and H. Robert Horvitz (The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002)

M. V. Grigorieva*, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Biochemistry Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: mvgrigorieva@biochem.kiev.ua

Received: 24 Nobember 2020; Accepted: 23 April 2021

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002 was awarded to Sydney Brenner, Howard Robert Horvitz and John Edward Sulston for their discoveries concerning “genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death”. The scientists­ studied cell division and differentiation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from the fertilized egg to the adult organism. As a result of their studies, key genes regulating organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis) were identified, and corresponding genes were shown to exist in higher species, including humans. These discoveries shed light on the pathogenesis of many diseases and were important for further medical research.

In silico identification and biochemical validation of plausible molecular targets of 4-thiazolidinone derivative Les-3833 as a potential anticancer agent

L. Kоbylinska1*, D. Khylyuk2, I. Subtelna2,
M. Kitsera3, R. Lesyk2

1Department of Biochemistry, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine;
2Department of Pharmaceutical, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine;
3Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: Kobylinska_Lesya@meduniv.lviv.ua; lesya8@gmail.com

Received: 16 January 2021; Accepted: 23 April 2021

Synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives have a broad range of pharmacologic activities. Thus, 4-thiazolidinones are being investigated to create new molecules and develop active pharmaceutical substances for anticancer treatment. In our previous study, we investigated the pyrazoline-thiazolidinone-isatin conjugates, and determined that Les-3833 was the most active compound and might act through inhibition of PARP-, MAPK-, JNK-, Bcl-2-, CDK1/cyclin B, and/or the caspase family. The aim of this research was to perform molecular docking studies to enable the construction of a pharmacophore model for the Les-3833 compound and investigate probable biological targets. Pharmacophore modeling software packages performed molecular docking studies of probable biological targets and enabled the construction of a pharmacophore model. Docking models of Les-3833 with 11 enzymes involved in apoptotic mechanisms were studied. Based on the pharmacophore modeling results for all 11 enzymes, Les-3833 is predicted to be most active in Chk‑1, caspase-6, and caspase-8. Immunoblot analysis proved that the application of Les-3833 led to inhibition of Ser345 phosphorylation, which is induced by etoposide, the most important modification responsible for Chk‑1 activity. Taken together with the results of the docking studies, several mechanisms for the expression of antitumor activity by 4-thiazolidinones are suggested, and such multi-affinity is a characteristic feature of all these derivatives. The docking analysis confirmed the affinity of test compound Les-3833 for a topoisomerase II inhibitor and a high possibility of inhibitory interaction with Chk-1, caspase-6, and caspase-8.

Male and female rats differ in homeostatic shifts during pre-slaughter fear stress

S. S. Grabovskyi1, R. R. Panchuk2, N. R. Skorokhyd2, R. S. Stoika2*

1Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Lviv, Ukraine;
2Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
*e-mail: stoika.rostyslav@gmail.com

Received: 19 June 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2020

In this investigation, the level of сortisol in blood plasma and  splenocytes apoptosis in male and female rats in response to fear stress created by animals’ waiting for different terms (20, 40, 60 min) before the slaughter were evaluated. A significant and dependent on the stress state duration increase in the level of cortisol in the blood plasma of  both male and female rats compared with the rats of control groups was found, which was more pronounced in females compared to males. The number of Annexin V-positive (apoptotic) cells was determined by FACS analysis. It was shown that the content of apoptotic splenocytes during the stress before slaughter was higher in females compared to males. The prolongation of  the stress period was accompanied by an increase in the content of apoptotic splenocytes in males and its decrease in females. The potential hormone-dependent attenuation of the mechanisms of adaptation to  stress before slaughter in female rats is discussed.

Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on oxidative stress and Bax and Bcl2 expression in the kidney tissue of rats exposed to lead

M. Gholami1, A. B. Harchegani2, S. Saeedian3,
M. Owrang4, M. R. Parvizi1*

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
2Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
3Medical Genomic Research Center, Tehran Medicine Sciences Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;
4Faculty of Medicine, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran;
*e-mail: mparvizi@alumnus.tums.ac.ir

Received: 30 May 2020; Accepted: 17 December 2021

This study aimed to consider the lead-induced oxidative damage of the kidney of male rats and the role of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in preserving cells against Pb toxicity. Rats were randomly divided into five groups including G1 (control), G2 (single 70 mg/kg dose of Pb), G3 (continuous daily 2 mg/kg dosing of Pb for 4 weeks), G4 (single dose of Pb + 50 mg/kg NAC), and G5 (continuous daily dosing of Pb + 50 mg/kg NAC). The level of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically.The level of Pb in  serum and kidney tissue was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Expression of Bax and Bcl2 genes was estimated using RT-PCR.  It was shown that single and continuous exposure to Pb caused a considerable increase of Pb content in serum and kidney tissue of rats in G2 and G3 groups compared to other groups. NAC treatment significantly improved TAC values and decreased MDA values in the serum of rats exposed to Pb. Single and continuous Pb dosing caused a 3.9- and 13.1-fold increase in Bax expression and 1.5-fold and 2.1-fold decrease in Bcl2 expression in a kidney tissue respectively. The current study revealed that single and  especially continuous Pb exposure  was strongly associated with Pb accumulation, antioxidant depletion, oxidative stress and kidney cells apoptosis. NAC can help protect kidney tissue against Pb by elevating antioxidant capacity, mitigating oxidative stress and normalizing Bax and Bcl2 genes expression.

Vitamin D(3) regulates hepatic VEGF-A and apelin expression in experimental type 1 diabetes

D. O. Labudzynskyi1*, I. O. Shymanskyi1, O. O. Lisakovska1,
A. O. Mazanova1, L. V. Natrus2, M. M. Veliky1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: konsument3@gmail.com

Received: 09 July 2019; Accepted: 15 May 2020

The deficiency of vitamin D is associated with the risk of various chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus and its complications. Given the strong genomic action of vitamin D hormone-active form, its deficiency can lead to dysfunction of cytokine signaling pathways, including those dependent on vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and apelin. The present study was carried out to define the link between VEGF-A and apelin expression in liver, hepatocytes viability and vitamin D status at experimental type 1 diabetes in mice. We established that chronic hyperglycemia at streptozotocin-induced diabetes was accompanied by a 2.2-fold decrease in 25OHD content in the serum and increased hepatocytes apoptosis and necrosis. Vitamin D deficiency correlated with increased apelin and VEGF-A (8- and 1.6-fold respectively) expression. Almost complete restoration of circulatory 25OHD content in serum was achieved at vitamin D3 treatment (800 IU/kg, per os, for 2 months) followed by reduced apelin and VEGF-A expression in liver and the decline of hepatocytes apoptosis. We conclude that vitamin D3 can be involved in cell survival, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis by modulating  VEGF-A and apelin dependent regulatory systems in diabetic liver.

Cytotoxic activity of the cluster rhenium compound with β-alanine ligands

K. V. Polokhina1, D. E. Kytova1, A. V. Shtemenko1, N. I. Shtemenko1,2

1Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine;
2Dnipro University of Technology, Ukraine;
e-mail: n.shtemenko@i.ua

Received: 25 February 2019; Accepted: 29 November 2019

Earlier we have shown that cluster rhenium compounds not only inhibited tumor growth in vivo but also supported the antioxidant state of experimental animals. Further investigation of new dirhenium(III) and cluster rhenium compounds in human leukemic cells is of great importance. The aim of the recent work was to investigate the cytotoxic activity of the new cluster rhenium compound with β-alanine ligands [Re2Cl6(C3H7NO2)2]·1.5H2O (I) in the solutions and nanoliposomes alone and together with cisplatin in Jurkat cells. It was shown that I in solution had cytotoxicity close to cisplatin (LC50 = 2.06·10-6 M). The administration of the rhenium-platinum system with І showed  increased cytotoxic activity, especially high when both components of the system were in the mixed liposomes together (LC50 = 4.93·10-10 M). The new dirhenium dicarboxylate complex with zwitterionic amino acid ligands possesses an appreciable cytotoxic and proapoptotic activity against leukemic cells, especially in combination with cisplatin, guiding the search for novel active rhenium compounds and development of improved regimens for combined chemotherapy based on combination of rhenium-platinum compounds.

Apoptosis induction in human leukemia cells by novel 2-amino-5-benzylthiazole derivatives

N. S. Finiuk1,2, I. I. Ivasechko1, O. Yu. Klyuchivska1,
Yu. V. Ostapiuk3, V. P. Hreniukh2, Ya. R. Shalai2,
V. S. Matiychuk3, M. D. Obushak3,
A. M. Babsky2, R. S. Stoika1

1Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
2Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Biology Faculty, Lviv, Ukraine;
3Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Chemistry Faculty, Lviv, Ukraine;
e-mail: stoika@cellbiol.lviv.ua

Received: 21 December 2018; Accepted: 20 March 2019

Derivatives of 2-amino-5-benzylthiazole are heterocyclic pharmacophores that exhibit different pharmacological activities including anticancer action. The mechanisms of such action of these compounds are not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate apoptosis induction, particularly DNA damage in human leukemia cells, by the novel synthesized thiazole derivatives ‒ 2,8-dimethyl-7-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)pyrazolo[4,3-e]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-4(2H)-one (compound 1) and 7-benzyl-8-methyl-2-propylpyrazolo[4,3-e]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-4(2H)-one (compound 2). Western-blot analysis, DNA comet assay in alkaline conditions, diphenylamine DNA fragmentation assay, agarose gel retardation, and methyl green DNA intercalation assays were used to study the effects of the studied compounds in human leukemia cells. These compounds induced PARP1 and caspase 3 cleavage in the leukemia cells, also increased the level of pro-apoptotic Bim protein and the mitochondrion-specific EndoG nuclease, and decreased the level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. They caused DNA single-strand breaks and DNA fragmentation in the leukemia cells without direct DNA binding or DNA intercalation. Thus, novel 2-amino-5-benzylthiazole derivatives may be promising agents for apoptosis induction in the targeted human leukemia cells.