Ukr.Biochem.J. 2022; Volume 94, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, pp. 45-50


Thrombomodulin and von willebrand factor as markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease

I. S. Mykhaloiko*, R. I. Yatsyshyn, N. V. Cherniuk, M. Ja. Humeniuk

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;

Received: 23 December 2021; Accepted: 01 July 2022

The aim of research was to study the levels of thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the serum and urine of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)as diagnostic markers of endothelial dysfunction. The study involved 140 patients with CKD. The clinical diagnosis was determined based on standard methods of patients examination according to the kidney diseases classification and protocols of CKD patients management. The concentrations of TM and VWF in serum and urine were quantified by ELISA. A generalized endothelial dysfunction in the vessels of the whole body, including the kidneys and high concentration of TM and FVF in the serum and urine of patients with a diabetic nephropathy have been found. The concentration of TM and VWF in the serum of patients with a chronic glomerulonephritis was at the same level as in the serum of healthy individuals, while those in urine significantly exceeded the control values, indicating endothelial damage in the glomeruli of the kidneys due to exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines. In our opinion, the studied markers will contribute to the timely diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction in patients with CKD and to the development of criteria for prescribing antiplatelet agents in glomerular kidney disease.

Keywords: , , , , ,


  1. Kolesnyk M. Innovative directions of CKD prevention and treatment. Ukr J Nephr Dial. 2019;(1(61)):3-12. CrossRef
  2. Kitamoto Y, Arizono K, Fukui H, Tomita K, Kitamura H, Taguma Y, Imamura T. Urinary thrombin: a novel marker of glomerular inflammation for the diagnosis of crescentic glomerulonephritis (prospective observational study). PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0118704. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  3. Aursulesei V, Costache II. Anticoagulation in chronic kidney disease: from guidelines to clinical practice. Clin Cardiol. 2019;42(8):774-782. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  4. Levi M , Sivapalaratnam S. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: an update on pathogenesis and diagnosis. Expert Rev Hematol. 2018;11(8):663-672. PubMed, CrossRef
  5. Foley JH, Conway EM. Cross Talk Pathways Between Coagulation and Inflammation. Circ Res. 2016;118(9):1392-1408. PubMed, CrossRef
  6. Gozhenko A, Kuznetsova H, Kuznetsova K, Stroi D, Kuznetsov S. Dynamics of endothelial desquamation in patients with diabetic kidney disease. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2019;18(8):16-20. CrossRef
  7. Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C. Physiological Roles of the von Willebrand Factor-Factor VIII Interaction. Subcell Biochem. 2020;94:437-464. PubMed, CrossRef
  8. Lancellotti S, Sacco M, Basso M, De Cristofaro R. Mechanochemistry of von Willebrand factor. Biomol Concepts. 2019;10(1):194-208. PubMed, CrossRef
  9. Loghmani H, Conway EM. Exploring traditional and nontraditional roles for thrombomodulin. Blood. 2018;132(2):148-158. PubMed, CrossRef
  10. Watanabe-Kusunoki K, Nakazawa D, Ishizu A, Atsumi T. Thrombomodulin as a Physiological Modulator of Intravascular Injury. Front Immunol. 2020;11:575890. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  11. Kanno H, Kanda E, Sato A, Sakamoto K, Kanno Y. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2016;20(2):258-264. PubMed, CrossRef
  12. Qin L, Stanley S, Ding H, Zhang T, Truong VTT, Celhar T, Fairhurst AM, Pedroza C, Petri M, Saxena R, Mohan C. Urinary pro-thrombotic, anti-thrombotic, and fibrinolytic molecules as biomarkers of lupus nephritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019;21(1):176. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  13. Fujita E, Nagahama K, Shimizu A, Aoki M, Higo S, Yasuda F, Mii A, Fukui M, Kaneko T, Tsuruoka S. Glomerular capillary and endothelial cell injury is associated with the formation of necrotizing and crescentic lesions in crescentic glomerulonephritis. J Nippon Med Sch. 2015;82(1):27-35. PubMed, CrossRef
  14. Wang H, Vinnikov I, Shahzad K, Bock F, Ranjan S, Wolter J, Kashif M, Oh J, Bierhaus A, Nawroth P, Kirschfink M, Conway EM, Madhusudhan T, Isermann B. The lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin ameliorates diabetic glomerulopathy via complement inhibition. Thromb Haemost. 2012;108(6):1141-1153. PubMed, CrossRef
  15. Li YH, Kuo CH, Shi GY, Wu HL. The role of thrombomodulin lectin-like domain in inflammation. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19(1):34. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.