Tag Archives: chronic kidney disease

Thrombomodulin and von willebrand factor as markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease

I. S. Mykhaloiko*, R. I. Yatsyshyn, N. V. Cherniuk, M. Ja. Humeniuk

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: iralisn@gmail.com

Received: 23 December 2021; Accepted: 01 July 2022

The aim of research was to study the levels of thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the serum and urine of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)as diagnostic markers of endothelial dysfunction. The study involved 140 patients with CKD. The clinical diagnosis was determined based on standard methods of patients examination according to the kidney diseases classification and protocols of CKD patients management. The concentrations of TM and VWF in serum and urine were quantified by ELISA. A generalized endothelial dysfunction in the vessels of the whole body, including the kidneys and high concentration of TM and FVF in the serum and urine of patients with a diabetic nephropathy have been found. The concentration of TM and VWF in the serum of patients with a chronic glomerulonephritis was at the same level as in the serum of healthy individuals, while those in urine significantly exceeded the control values, indicating endothelial damage in the glomeruli of the kidneys due to exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines. In our opinion, the studied markers will contribute to the timely diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction in patients with CKD and to the development of criteria for prescribing antiplatelet agents in glomerular kidney disease.

The oxidative status in patients with chronic kidney disease

V. S. Vasylchenko1,2*, L. V. Korol1, O. B. Kuchmenko2, N. M. Stepanova1

1State Institution “Institute of Nephrology of the National Academy
of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv;
2National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine;
*e-mail: vasylchenkovita@gmail.com

Received: 26 March 2020; Accepted: 25 June 2020

An excess of free radicals accompanies the development of renal pathologies and causes numerous concomitant complications and syndromes. The most common of these are cardiometabolic syndromes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the activity of paraoxonase-1 and myeloperoxidase, which are associated with indicators of high-density lipoproteins content and oxidative stress in the blood of patients with the chronic stage of kidney disease. The activity of the enzymes, thiobarbiturate-active products concentration and  transferrin, ceruloplasmin, thiol compounds content were determined in the blood of patients with chronic kidney disease. The oxidative status was shown to be changed. Thus, myeloperoxidase activity, the content of  oxidized proteins and the concentration of thiobarbiturate-positive components were increased, while  the activity of the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase-1, the content of transferrin, ceruloplasmin and thiol compounds were decreased. The ratio of myeloperoxidase/paraoxonase-1 activities was progressively increased up to 9-fold, indicating the presence of cardiovascular complications in patients. The data obtained allowed to extend the range of indicators for monitoring the development of cardiometabolic disorders in the progression of chronic kidney disease.

D-dimer as a potential predictor of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease

I. S. Mykhaloiko1*, I. O. Dudar2, I. Ja. Mykhaloiko1, O. Ja. Mykhaloiko1

1SHEE “Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University”, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2SI “Institute of Nephrology AMS of Ukraine”, Kiev, Ukraine;
*e-mail: iralisn@gmail.com

Received: 13 February 2020; Accepted: 30 June 2020

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between D-dimer levels and different biomarkers­ of renal diseases to identify the relationship between hypercoagulation and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To achieve this aim, we conducted a one-step prospective observational study involving 140 patients with CKD who were hospitali­zed in Ivano-Frankivsk Regional Clinical Hospital in Ukraine during 2018-2019. Of these patients, 100 patients (71.4%; 95% CI 53.4-76.7) had glomerulonephritis (GN) and 40 patients (28,6%; 95% CI 21.3-36.8) had diabetic nephropathy (DN). All patients underwent standard examination, which included general clinical, biochemical and instrumental research methods. D-dimer was quantitatively determined in blood serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 140 patients were divided into two groups according to the level of D-dimers: normal level (<0.5 mg/l) and elevated level (≥0.5 mg/l). Elevated D-dimer levels were associated with an increased age of patients, decreased glomerular filtration rate, decreased blood albumin level, increased daily protein excretion and a tendency to develop thromboembolic complications during 1 year of monitoring. D-dimer is a biological marker that can detect hypercoagulation at an early preclinical stage in patients with CKD and identify patients with an increased cardiovascular risk, thereby promoting the earliest use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants  and, consequently, it can reduce mortality­.

Calpains: general characteristics and role in various states of the organism

N. F. Starodub1, L. M. Samokhina2, S. N. Koval2, I. A. Snegurskaya2

1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: nikstarodub@yahoo.com;
2GD L. T. Malaya National Institute of Therapy of NAMS of Ukraine, Kharkov;
e-mail: lub.samokhina@yandex.ua

Calpains are a family of cytoplasmic calcium-dependent proteinases with papain-like activity. They participate in a variety of processes in the body: age changes, functioning of endothelium and pulmonary system, regulation of apoptosis and necrosis, development of various hypometabolic states, arterial hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, tumor growth. It is concluded that calpains, causing limited proteolysis of substrates, play an important role in a wide range of biological phenome­na. Their activity is associated with the response to the calcium-dependent signaling and the effects of aging. Inhibition of calpains activity contributes to inhibition of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, formation of structural and functional changes in the kidney tissue, has neuroprotective effect, preventing sarcopenia, reduces inflammatory reactions caused by hyperventilation of the lungs.