Tag Archives: creatinine

Novel biochemical markers for the prediction of renal injury in beta-thalassemia major pediatric patients

A. J. Shwayel1*, A. M. Jewad1, M. Q. Abdulsattar2

1Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Health and Medical Technical College,
Southern Technical University, Basrah, Iraq;
2Thi-Qar Health Directorate, Iraq;
*е-mail: ameeralzaidy6@gmail.com

Received: 07 June 2023; Revised: 14 August 2023;
Accepted: 27 October 2023; Available on-line: 06 November 2023

Beta-thalassemia major is a severe inherited disorder characterized by inadequate production of hemoglobin beta chains, ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic hemolysis and necessitates lifelong transfusions, which lead to iron overload. The disease manifests itself in early childhood and persists throughout an individual’s life with a high risk of developing renal impairment, which cannot be reliably determined using routine markers. The objective of this research was to apply biomarkers to the evaluation of renal injury in pediatric­ patients within the age range of 1–14 years diagnosed with beta-thalassemia major. In the case-control study, the blood samples obtained in the Genetic Hematology Center in Thi-Qar Iraq Province were used: 60 samples from healthy individuals and 60 samples from the patients with beta-thalassemia, subdivided into 1-7 and 8-14 years old groups. The levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, creatinine and potassium were estimated with standard tests, enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to determine the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) as novel markers of tubular and glomerular dysfunctions. The study revealed a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin, serum potassium levels and an increase in ferritin, NGAL and β2M levels in the patients from both groups compared to controls and elevation of creatinine level in the 8–14-year-old group. It was concluded that NGAL and β2M levels may be considered indicators for the early diagnosis of renal injury in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia, as these biomarkers exhibit elevated levels before an increase in creatinine is observed.

Assessment of urinary podocalyxin as a biomarker of early diagnosis of hypertensive nephropathy

I. Kostovska*, K. Tosheska-Trajkovska, D. Labudovic,
S. Cekovska, O. Kostovski, G. Spasovski

Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia;
*e-mail: irenakostovska22@yahoo.com

Received: 31 August 2023; Revised: 28 September 2023;
Accepted: 27 October 2023; Available on-line: 06 November 2023

Chronically high blood pressure-related kidney injury is known as hypertensive nephropathy (HN). Podocyte damage in the pathogenesis of this disease can result in the release of the sialoglycoprotein podocalyxin into the urine, so podocalyxin may be useful in the early diagnosis of HN. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between urine podocalyxin level and clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with HN and to assess the diagnostic utility of urinary podocalyxin as an early marker of HN. Participants (114 individuals) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 30 healthy controls and 84 patients with clinically proven chronic hypertension (CH). Biochemical tests were performed on the blood samples. Urinary microalbumin and creatinine levels were measured using immunoturbidimetric and spectrophotometric methods, respectively; urinary podocalyxin level was estimated with ELISA. All CH patients were classified into subgroups according to urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (UM/CR) and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The results obtained showed that urinary podocalyxin level was significantly increased in both UM/CR and CKD staging subgroups compared with the healthy control group. A gradual increase in urinary podocalyxin level with CKD stage, especially in IV and V stages, and the higher sensitivi­ty of urinary podocalyxin as compared to UM/CR ratio in early detection of HN was demonstrated. It was concluded that urinary podocalyxin may be an important and highly sensitive marker for early diagnosis of hypertensive nephropathy in patients with chronic hypertension.

Antioxidative effect of the N-stearoylethanolamine in the heart tissue and blood plasma of rats under doxorubicin treatment

I. A. Goudz, N. M. Gula, T. O. Khmel, T. M. Goridko, A. G. Berdyshev

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ngula@biochem.kiev.ua

The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the alterated antioxidant enzyme activity in the heart tissue and blood plasma of rats under the doxorubicin treatment was investigated.  It was shown that doxorubicin administration caused the decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in the heart tissue. Administration of the NSE promoted the partial normalization of these enzymes activity. It was shown that doxorubicin treatment caused the increase of the urea and creatinine level in the blood plasma of experimental animals.  The NSE administration normalized the level of the urea and did not affect creatinine level.

Comparison of blood biochemical indices in rats exposed to lead in macrodispersed form and nanoform

 I. A. Lazarenko, N. M. Melnikova

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: ilazarenko2009@yandex.ru

It is shown that the increasing content of lead in blood (6.3 and 3.7 times) and liver (30.1 and 4.6 times) in rats after 14-days per os exposure both to lead acetate (macrodispersed form) and lead nanoparticles (nanoform) in a dose of 7 mg/100 g of body weight leads to the increased of activity of blood enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and a decrease of creatinine level. Lead in nanoform with slight accumulation, due to the greater elimination, expressed higher biological activity and reactivity as compared to macrodispersed form. Thus the exposure to lead in different dispersed form suggests metabolic disorders in rats, and accumulation of lead and biochemical changes are more expressed in the liver.

Biochemical changes in rats under the influence of cesium chloride

N. M. Melnikova, O. V. Yermishev

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: iermishev@i.ua

Cesium is lately accumulated actively in the environment, but its influence on human and ani­mal organism is the least studied among heavy metals. It is shown that the action of cesium chloride in rats caused significant changes in blood chemistry, which are characterized by a decrease of total protein content, pH, an increase in the level of urea, creatinine, glucose and total hemoglobin. The results showed that potassium content in all the studied organs and tissues of poisoned rats decreases under the action of cesium chloride. Histological examination of the heart tissue in rats poisoned with cesium chloride indicates the onset of pathology of cardiovascular system. It was found out that use of the drug “Asparkam” reduces the negative effect of cesium chloride on the body of rats.