Tag Archives: lipid metabolism

The contribution of the Nobel laureates to the study of lipid metabolism and its regulation. F. Lynen, K. Bloch, S. Bergström, B. Samuelsson, J. Vane, M. Brown, J. Goldstein

O. P. Matyshevska, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: matysh@yahoo.com

Received: 16 October  2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

The aim of this work was to analyze the experimental achievements in the field of biochemical science, such as the structure and metabolism of lipids. Since the early 1960s, there has been a real breakthrough in the study of intermediate lipid metabolism and its regulation, which has been marked not only by the award of a number of Nobel Prizes, but also by the formation of clinical lipidology as a section of metabology. The discoveries made by Feodor Lynen and Konrad Bloch helped clarify the key role of cholesterol in the development of atherosclerosis and heart attacks. The discoveries of Sune Bergström and Bengt Samuelsson have given impetus to a number of studies on the biological functions of prostaglandins. Humanity should be grateful to English pharmacologist John Robert Vane for discovering prostacyclin and for the important role he played in understanding the ability of aspirin to block the production of prostaglandins  from arachidonic acid. Joseph Goldstein and Michael Brown have made a fundamental contribution to the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the body. They studied hypercholesterolemia, in particular a form of hereditary disease characteri­zed by high levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood, in which atherosclerotic deposits are formed in the cells of the blood vessels. Thanks to fundamental research of all the above-mentioned nobelians, achievements in such fields as genetics of family hyperchesterolemia, regulation of the functional state of arteries and microvessels, prevention of atherosclerosis, and other vascular complications are generally recognized today.

The relationship between serum ferritin levels and serum lipids and HDL function with respect to age and gender

Hamit Yasar Ellidag1*, Esin Eren1, Mehmet Akdag2,
Ozlem Giray1, Kemal Kiraz3, Necat Yilmaz1

1Central Laboratories of Antalya Training and Research Hospital,
University of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health, Antalya, Turkey;
2ENT Clinic of Antalya Ataturk State Hospital, Ministry of Health, Antalya, Turkey;
3Department of Pulmonology, Antalya Ataturk State Hospital,
Ministry of Health, Antalya, Turkey;
e-mail: hayael1980@hotmail.com

Elevated serum ferritin (SFer) levels have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between SFer levels and serum lipid parameters, and how this relation changes in terms of age and gender. Additionally, we investigated a possible relationship between SFer levels and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. SFer levels and lipid panel (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-C) of 4205 people (3139 women, 1066 men) were examined retrospectively. Study population was classified according to age and gender. Separately, 100 subjects (52 women, 48 men) were randomly recruited to investigate the relation between SFer levels, and HDL dependent paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and arylesterase (ARE) activities. In all age groups, women’s SFer levels were found to be significantly lower and HDL-C levels significantly higher compared to men. In the 50-70 ages range, TC and LDL-C levels of women were found to be significantly higher than those of men (P < 0.01). SFer levels tended to increase with age in women. Correlation analyses revealed a negative correlation between levels of SFer and HDL-C, while positive correlations existed between levels of SFer, and TC, TG and LDL-C. There was no significant correlation between SFer levels and PON1 or ARE activities. The finding that increased SFer levels are accompanied by increased serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels may help us to explain the increased risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization

Yu. V. Tseyslyer1, О. M. Podpalova2, N. Е. Nurishchenko1, V. S. Маrtyniuk1

1ESC Institute of Biology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: yuliya.tseysler@gmail.com,
2Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: olgapodpalova@gmail.com

The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skele­tal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

Association of allele variants of receptor gene of androgens (by the number of CAG-repeats) with androgen dependent hormonal metabolic indices of the organism

V. V. Korpachev, S. V. Melnychenko, R. G. Lukashova

State Institution V. Р. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism,
National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: vitascovna@gmail.com

This review discusses up-to-date conceptions concerning an association of androgen receptor gene (AR) allele (by the number of CAG-repeats) variations with the change of the receptor activity in humans. Different contradictory experiment results concerning the AR function dependence on the number of CAG-repeats have been analyzed. The authors discuss this problem paying mostly their attention to the interrelation between the number of CAG-repeats  and indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism in males and females.