Tag Archives: superoxide dismutase

Participation of the active oxygen forms in the induction of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase under heat hardening of wheat seedlings

Yu. E. Kolupaev, O. I. Oboznyi

V. V. Dokuchayev Kharkiv National Agrarian University, Ukraine;
e-mail: plant_biology@mail.ru

The influence of one-minute hardening heating at 42 °C on the dynamics of hydrogen peroxide generation and activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots of winter wheat seedlings has been investigated. It was shown that the content of hydrogen peroxide increased within the first 30 minutes after heat influence, whereupon it approached the level of control variant. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly within 10 min after heating and was maintained at a high level during 24 hours of observation. The activi­ty of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase increased after 3-6 hours after the hardening and reached its maximum after 24 hours, when there was the most significant increase in heat resistance of seedlings. The short-term increase in hydrogen peroxide content caused by hardening heating was suppressed by treatment of seedlings with H2O2 scavenger dimethylthiourea, inhibitors of NADPH-oxidase (imidazole) and SOD (sodium diethyldithiocarbamate). All these effectors levelled the increase of activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and significantly inhibited the development of heat resistance of seedlings. The conclusion was made about the role of hydrogen peroxide produced with the participation of NADPH­-oxidase and SOD in the induction of antioxidant system by heat harde­ning of wheat seedlings.

Antioxidant and antitumor activity of dirhenium dicarboxylates in animals with Guerin carcinoma

I. V. Leus1, K. L. Shamelashvili1, O. D. Skorik1, S. Y. Tretyak2,
O. A. Golichenko2, O. V. Shtemenko2, N. I. Shtemenko1

1Oles Gonchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Ukraine;
2Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology, Dnipropetrovsk;
e-mail: ingaleus@mail.ru

The antioxidant and anticancer properties of dirhenium dicarboxylates of cis- and trans-configuration with different organic ligands in a model of tumor growth (Guerin carcinoma) were studied. It was shown that compounds of different configuration had similar antitumor effect, and dirhenium (III) cis-dicarboxylates were characterized by higher antioxidant activity and degree of activation of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) in comparison with trans-isomers. The dependence between the structure of dirhenium (III) dicarboxylates and their ability to activate erythrocyte SOD in the model of tumor growth was shown for the first time. The in vitro studies have shown that rhenium compounds of cis- and trans-configuration interacted similarly with erythrocyte SOD, changing the protein secondary structure. In contrast to trans-dicarboxylate, for cis-dicarboxylate the SOD-like activity was demonstrated to be on the first minutes of the xantine-oxidase reaction. The studied features of the interaction between rhenium compounds and SOD in vitro explain only partly the activation of SOD in experiments in vivo. The attempt is made to explain the differences in the mechanisms of antioxidant activity of dirhenium cis- and trans-dicarboxylates.

Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypoclorite

O. I. Bishko, N. P. Harasym, D. I. Sanahurs’kyj

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine;
e-mail: oliabishko@gmail.com

There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxi­de dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and Н2О2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose Н2О2 and hydroperoxides were inhibi­ted. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase of catalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the conside­rable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation

M. M. Yaremchuk, M. V. Dyka, D. I. Sanagursky

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,Ukraine;
e-mail: m.yaremchuk@i.ua

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products – lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05) is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

Influence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 2E1 expression in rat liver

O. V. Maksymchuk

Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: prima@imbg.org.ua; o.maksymchuk@ukr.net

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-3 ones in particular, form phospholipid layer of biological membranes, which provides normal functioning of membrane-associated complexes of enzymes and transmembrane transport. Free ω-3 PUFAs regulate the transcription of many genes, and thereby have an effect on the level­ of metabolic processes, particularly control of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver. Cytochrome P450 2E1 ( causes the transformation of lipophilic exogenous and endogenous substances, as well as involvement in homeostasis, both at the cellular and systemic levels. The aim is to study changes in expression of cytochrome P450 2E1, and to assess the antioxidant system and the level of peroxidation processes in the liver of experimental animals under the chronic action of ω-3 PUFAs. During experiment more than two-fold increase in the content of cytochrome P450 2E1 was observed in the liver of rats which additionally received ω-3 PUFAs for 4 weeks in the standard daily diet. At the same time, such changes in the enzyme expression did not lead to an imbalance of pro- and antioxidant processes in the liver.

State of antioxidant system of rat thymocytes in experimental ulcerogenesis

V. A. Kovaleva, L. M. Gaida, A. E. Shevchenko, D. V. Shelest, L. I. Ostapchenko

Educational and Scientific Centre Institute of Biology,
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Ukraine;
e-mail: vikikov@univ.kiev.ua

Features of free radical processes and their impact on the implementation of immunocompetent cells of their functions under conditions of peptic ulcer are insufficiently studied today. Reduced activity of catalase 1.7 and 3.4 times and that of glutathione peroxidise  ~ 2.0 times, accordingly, were observed in both models of gastric ulceration (stress ulcer and ethanol one). Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase decreased 1.5 times and activity of glutathione transferase increased 1.8 times in the stress model in contrast to the ethanol model of stomach ulcer. Obtained results indicate the exhaustion of antioxidant system in rats’ thymocytes under experimental ulcerogenesis. These data confirm complex negative effect of ulcer on the organism.