Ukr.Biochem.J. 2013; Volume 85, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, pp. 40-47


Activity of the glutathione system of antioxidant defense in rats under the action of L-glutamic acid

N. O. Salyha

Institute of Animal Biology, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine;

The data on the effects of glutamic acid (L-Glu), which is one of three amino acid – precursors of glutathione on animals organism is quite controversial because research in this area remain relevant. The aim of our research was to find out what impact the additional  introduction of L-Glu on the activity glutathione system of antioxidant defence and the content of lipid peroxidation products­ in various organs and tissues of rats. The effect of additional (285 and 715 mg/kg, respectively) introduction to the diet of L-Glu on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and intensity of peroxidation processes in various tissues of rats was studied. It is shown that in the liver, spleen and kidneys of rats which received additional 715 mg/kg of L-Glu content of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity increased. A decrease of the content of lipid hydroper­oxides and TBA-active products in tissues of animals which received additional 285 and 715 mg/kg of L-Glu into the diet was found. We have also found that the enrichment of rat’s diet by L-Glu during 30 days resulted in a change of glutathione part of antioxidant system and intensity of lipid peroxidation. More intensive changes in these indices were observed in animals which received additional 715 mg/kg of L-Glu into the diet.

Keywords: , , , , ,


  1. Lu SC. Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):42-59. Review. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  2. Mazo VK. As a component of glutathione antioxidant system of the gastrointestinal tract. Rus J Gastroenterol Hepatol Coloproctol. 1998;(1):47-53.
  3. Forman HJ, Zhang H, Rinna A. Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):1-12. Review. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  4. Salyha Y. Biological effects assessment of chlorpyrifos and some aspects of its neurotoxicity.  Visnyk Lviv Univ. Biology Series. 2010;(54):3-14.
  5. Townsend DM, Tew KD, Tapiero H. The importance of glutathione in human disease. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 May-Jun;57(3-4):145-55. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  6. Lo WJ, Chiou YC, Hsu YT, Lam WS, Chang MY, Jao SC, Li WS. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis of glutathione conjugates: application to the understanding of a parasite’s defense system and alternative to the discovery of potent glutathione S-transferase inhibitors. Bioconjug Chem. 2007 Jan-Feb;18(1):109-20. PubMed, CrossRef
  7. Salyha Yu., Rosalovsky V., Fedyakov R. Glutathione system in erythrocytes of rats intoxicated by chlorpyrifos.  Visnyk Lviv Univ. Biology Series. 2012;(60): 99-104.
  8. Yuan L, Kaplowitz N. Glutathione in liver diseases and hepatotoxicity. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):29-41. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  9. Smith RJ. Glutamine metabolism and its physiologic importance. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1990 Jul-Aug;14(4 Suppl):40S-44S. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  10. Newsholme P, Procopio J, Lima MM, Pithon-Curi TC, Curi R. Glutamine and glutamate–their central role in cell metabolism and function. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003 Mar;21(1):1-9. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  11. Newsholme P. Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection? J Nutr. 2001 Sep;131(9 Suppl):2515S-22S; discussion 2523S-4S. Review. PubMed
  12. Roth E. Nonnutritive effects of glutamine. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2025S-2031S. Review. PubMed
  13. Hansen AM, Caspi RR. Glutamate joins the ranks of immunomodulators. Nat Med. 2010 Aug;16(8):856-8.  PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
  14.  Platt SR.  The role of glutamate in central nervous system health and disease – A review. Vet J. 2007 Mar;173(2):278-86. PubMed, CrossRef
  15. Ivanov A, Pellegrino C, Rama S, Dumalska I, Salyha Y, Ben-Ari Y, Medina I. Opposing role of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. J Physiol. 2006 May 1;572(Pt 3):789-98. PubMed, PubMedCentral, CrossRef
  16. Moin VM. A simple and specific method for determining glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes. Lab Delo. 1986;(12):724-7. Russian. PubMed
  17. Putilina FE.  Methods for biochemical studies / Ed. M.I. Prokhorov. L.: Leningrad University Press,1982. 272p.
  18. Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959 May;82(1):70-7. PubMed, CrossRef
  19. A. C. 1084681 USSR, ICP  G N 33/48. Method of determination of lipid hydroperoxides in biological tissues / Mironchik V. V. No. 3468369/28-13; appl. 08.07.84; publ. 07.04.84. Bull N 13.
  20. Korobeynikova EN. Modification of the determination of lipid peroxidation products in a reaction with thiobarbituric acid. Lab Delo. 1989;(7):8-10. Russian. PubMed
  21. Kolesnichenko LS, Kulinsky VI.  Glutathione transferases. Usp Sovrem Biol. 1989;107(2):179-194.
  22.  Saez G. T., Bannister W. H., Bannister J. V. / In: Vina J, ed. Glutathione: Metabolism and physiological functions. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 1990. P. 237-254.
  23. Cacciatore I, Cornacchia C, Pinnen F, Mollica A, Di Stefano A. Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levels. Molecules. 2010 Mar 3;15(3):1242-64. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  24. Kalinina EV, Chernov NN, Saprin AN. Involvement of thio-, peroxi-, and glutaredoxins in cellular redox-dependent processes. Uspekhi Biol Khimii. 2008;48:319-358. CrossRef
  25. Cand F, Verdetti J. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in the major organs of the aging rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 1989;7(1):59-63. PubMed, CrossRef
  26. Kulinsky VI, Kolesnichenko LS. The structure, properties, biological role and regulation of glutathione peroxidase. Usp Sovrem Biol.  1993;113:107-121.
  27. Kerimov BF. Glutathione-deficient state of nervous tissues in starved animals intensifies lipid peroxidation and oxidation of protein SH-groups. Ukr Biokhim Zhurn. 2004 Jan-Feb;76(1):108-13. Russian.  PubMed
  28. Stadtman ER, Levine RL. Free radical-mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins. Amino Acids. 2003 Dec;25(3-4):207-18. Review. PubMed, CrossRef
  29.   Vladimirov YuA, Azizova OA, Deev AI, Kozlov AV.  Free radicals in living systems. Results of science and technology. Biophysics. 1992;29:3-250.

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.