Tag Archives: cholesterol

Personalised diet improve intestine microbiota and metabolism of obese rats

V. V. Bati1*, T. V. Meleshko1, O.V. Pallah1,
I. P. Zayachuk2, N. V. Boyko1

1RDE Centre of Molecular Microbiology and Mucosal Immunology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine;
2Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: victoria.bati@uzhnu.edu.ua

Received: 25 April 2020; Accepted: 07 July 2021

Recent research on human microbiome provide opportunities to develop functional foods of new generation that can regulate intestinal microbiota and the biochemical status of the individual. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of individually designed nutrition on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of rats. Outbred laboratory rats with obesity  were randomly divided into 9 groups (= 12) depending on the type of food ingredients taken orally for three months. The ratio of the intestinal commensal microorganisms main groups, as well as the lipid profile and the content of glucose, urea, calcium in the serum of animals were determined. It was shown that cholesterol level in the serum was reduced in experimental groups after consumption of lactobacilli suspension, blueberry juice, fermented milk drink based on lactobacilli, fermented milk drink with blueberry juice, sauerkraut. In most cases, the gut microbiome of experimental animals was characterized by a consistently high level of lacto and other beneficial bacteria and decreased amount of opportunistic microorganisms at the end of the experiment compared with animals in the control group. Based on the obtained data, we first proposed the principles of creating functional products by synergistically combining components of edible plants that act as prebiotics and microorganisms that act as probiotics for personalized use, targeted correction of intestinal microbiome and prevention of noncommunicable diseases.

Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of polyherbal composition in patients with chronic cholecystitis

M. Gahramanova1,2, I. Khalilova3, A. Omarov3,
Ya. Susak4, M. Rudyk2, L. Skivka2*

1Nargiz Medical Center, Baku, Azerbaijan;
2ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Department of Life Sciences & Center for Cell Pathology Research, Khazar University, Baku, Azerbaijan;
4Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: realmed@i.com.ua

Received: 21 November 2019; Accepted: 15 May 2020

Herbal preparations are widely used in the complementary treatment of inflammatory diseases including hepatobiliary disorders, among which chronic cholecystitis is one of the most common. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of the water extract from polyherbal composition consisting of eight medicinal plants (Helichrysum arenarium, Mentha piperita, Calendula officinalis, Taraxacum officinale, Polygonum aviculare, Matricaria chamomilla, Portulaca oleracea, Hypericum perforatum) on biochemical and haematologic indices as well as on immune reactivity parameters in patients with chronic cholecystitis. It was found that  consumption of polyherbal tea during 45 days was followed by normalization of liver biochemical indices (serum level of cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and  aspartate aminotransferase activity, total and unconjugated bilirubin levels and diminution of hematological (leukocytosis, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and immunological (increased serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines) signs of systemic inflammation in patients with hepatobiliary disorder. The results of the research showed that the studied polygerbal composition can be recommended as a component of the complementary therapy for patients with chronic cholecystitis.

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves as a food supplement on rats with alloxan-induced diabet

G. N. Anyasor, O. O. Adekanye, O. T. Adeyemi, O. Osilesi

Department of Biochemistry, Benjamin S. Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria;
e-mail: olaoluwatemi@yahoo.com

Received: 16 October 2019; Accepted: 15 May 2020

Corchorus olitorius is a species of shrub in the family Malvaceae known to have rich sources of chemical compound. The leaves of this plant are locally consumed as a vegetable and as a remedy in Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of C. olitorius leaves sample given for 14 days as a food supplement to rats with alloxan-induced diabet. Twenty one male albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly assigned into three groups: 1 – control rats; 2 –  diabetic rats; 3 – diabetic rats fed with C. olitorius leaves as supplement. Phytochemical analysis of C. olitorius leaves ethanolic extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenols, phlobatannins and flavonoids. Diabetic rats fed with C. olitorius leaves as a supplement were shown to have significantly (P < 0.01) decreased plasma glucose, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The findings from this study indicated that C. olitorius leaf possesses hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties.

Corvitin modulates the content of lipids in rat liver bile

T. V. Vovkun1, P. I. Yanchuk1, L. Ya. Shtanova1,
S. P. Veselsky1, N. B. Filimonova1, I. V. Komarov2

1ESC “Institute of Biology and Мedicine”, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine
2“Institute of High Technologies
”, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: shtanova@ukr.net

Received: 23 March 2019; Accepted: 18 October 2019

Quercetin (QUE) and its water-soluble form сorvitin are medicinally important members of the fla­vonoid family and the most prominent dietary antioxidants. Numerous pharmacological effects of quercetin include protection against diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disea­ses. Corvitin modulates liver blood flow but its effects on liver lipid metabolism have not been understood. We investigated the influence of corvitin (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) on the formation and secretion of cholesterol (Chol), cholesterol esters (EChol), phospholipids (PLs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and triglycerides (TGs) into the bile. Secreted bile was collected during 2.5 h of the experiment. Lipid fractions of the bile were separated by thin-layer chromatography. We defined that administration of corvitin caused a significant (P < 0.05–0.001) increase in levels of all studied lipid components of bile. At a dose of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg corvitin increased bile content of Chol, PLs and FFAs,and at a  dose of 10 mg/kg had the largest effect on the total production of EChol and TGs. We concluded that corvitin activates the liver lipids metabolism and processes of bile formation.

Development on knowledge of hormone biochemistry in the works of the Nobel prize laureates of the first half of the 20th century: F. G. Banting, John J. R. Macleod, H. O. Wieland, A. O. Windaus, A. F. Butenandt, L. Ružička, E.Kendall, P. Hench, T. Reichstein

R. P. Vynogradova, V. M. Danilova, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

Received: 18 February 2019; Accepted: 14 March 2019

The first half of the 20th century was marked by significant scientific advances in the study of hormones and vitamins. Among the first resear­chers working with hormones were F. Banting and J. Macleod, who discovered and characterized the pancreatic hormone insulin. This discovery catalyzed advances in the understanding of the mechanisms regulating biochemical processes – a new topic in the field of biological chemistry. The next important stage in the development of knowledge on biologically active substances was the works of organic chemists G. Wieland, A. Windaus, A. Butenandt and L. Ružička. They almost simultaneously identified and characterized the chemical structures of bile acids, vitamin D as well as female and male sex hormones. They found that all of these compounds are of a steroid nature and identified cholesterol as the starting material for their synthesis in the body. The studies of highly-active substances of steroid nature were continued by E. Kendall, F. Hench and T. Reichstein. They synthesized and investigated the structure and biological effects of corticosteroids, the hormones produced in the adrenal cortex. They were first to develop a method for the commercial manufacturing of cortisone, a hormone which is widely used to treat inflammatory processes. Thus, in the first half of the 20th century, organic chemists gave biochemists knowledge on the structure of essential for the human body substances – steroid compounds.

Long-term hypocholesterolemic effect of amidated alginate in rats

M. Marounek1, Z. Volek1, T. Taubner1, D. Dušková1, L. Kalachniuk2

1Institute of Animal Science, Prague, Czech Republic;
e-mail: marounek.milan@vuzv.cz;
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: kalachnyuk_liliya@nubip.edu.ua; lilkalachnyuk@gmail.com

The effect of octadecylamide of alginic acid on blood serum and hepatic cholesterol, and the faecal output of fat and sterols was examined in female rats fed diets containing cholesterol and palm fat at 10 and 50 g/kg, respectively for 10 weeks. Amidated alginate, supplied at 10 and 20 g/kg, significantly decreased serum cholesterol from 5.25 to 2.99 and 2.39 µmol/ml, respectively, and decreased hepatic cholesterol from 30.7 to 12.3 and 9.4 µmol/g, respectively. Amidated alginate increased the faecal output of fat and at higher dosing significantly decreased faecal output of bile acids. Faecal output of bile acids and hepatic cholesterol significantly correlated (r = 0.791; P < 0.001). The results of the present experiment showed that hypocholesterolemic effect of amidated alginate persisted within 10 weeks of feeding.

Preventive effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on memory disorders, blood and brain biochemical parameters in rats with experimental scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment

T. M. Horid’ko1, H. V. Kosiakova1, A. G. Berdyshev1, O. F. Meged1,
O. V. Onopchenko1, V. M. Klimashevsky1, О. S. Tkachenko1, V. R. Bazylianska1,
V. O. Kholin2, K. O. Peschana2, S. A. Mykhalskiy2, N. M. Hula1

1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Institute of Gerontology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: TanGoRi@ukr.net

The impairment of cognitive functions is the most studied medical and social problem nowadays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on memory state, blood and brain biochemical parameters in rats under scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment. The results of this study shown that NSE administration to rats per os (5 mg/kg, 5 days, during last 3 days NSE was administrated 20 min prior to scopolamine injection (1 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days, intraperitoneally)) prevented the development of memory impairment. In particular, NSE action was associated with the prevention of increase in acetylcholinesterase activity, changes in phospholipid, free and esterified cholesterol level in hippocampus and frontal cortex, and disruption in pro-/antioxidant balance in blood and studied brain sections. Considering the above mentioned biological effects, NSE is a promising drug candidate for integrative therapy of cognitive impairment of different profiles.

Exocytotic steps in cell-free system after cholesterol deprivation in synaptosomal plasma membranes and synaptic vesicles

V. P. Gumenyuk, I. O. Trikash

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: trikash@biochem.kiev.ua

Using a cell-free system we investigated a specific role of cholesterol in exocytotic processes. To modulate the cholesterol content in membrane methyl-β-cyclodextrin was used as a cholesterol binding agent. The experimental conditions for cholesterol depletion from synaptosomal membrane structures were determined and depended on methyl-β-cyclodextrin concentration, time and mediums temperature. The role of cholesterol was studied on the stages of synaptic vesicles docking and Ca2+-stimulated fusion which are the components of multivesicular compound exocytosis. Using­ dynamic light scattering technique we have found that after cholesterol depletion from synaptic vesicles the process of their aggregation (docking) remains unchanged.
It was found that the rate of calcium-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles depends on the membrane level of cholesterol. The decreasing level of synaptosomal plasma membrane cholesterol by 8% leads to suppression of the Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion with synaptic vesicles. But, under 25% reduction of plasma membrane cholesterol the level­ of membrane merging with synaptic vesicles did not differ from control; probably this is due to changes in physical properties of lipid bilayer and/or disturbances in function of membrane proteins driving this process.
In cholesterol depleted synaptosomes the exocytotic release of glutamate stimulated by calcium was decreased by 32%. Obtained data suggest that the cholesterol concenration in synaptosomal plasma membranes or synaptic vesicles is the crucial determinant for synaptic transmission efficiency in nerve terminals.

Laureates of the Palladin Prize of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (1991–1992)

V. M. Danilova, R. P. Vynogradova

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: valdan@biochem.kiev.ua

The article presents biographical information and analysis of scientific activity of laureates of the Palladin Prize of NAS of Ukraine G. V. Donchenko (1991) and S. O. Kosterin (1992) who were awarded for the monographs “Biochemistry of ubiquinone” and “Calcium transport in smooth muscles”, respectively. These monographs summarized the results of the original researches and the data of the world scientific literature.