Tag Archives: oxidative stress

Gamma-aminobutyric acid modulates antioxidant and osmoprotective systems in seedlings of Triticum aestivum cultivars differing in drought tolerance

Yu. E. Kolupaev1,2,3*, I. V. Shakhov1,3, A. I. Kokorev1,
L. Kryvoruchko2, T. O. Yastreb1,4

1Yuriev Plant Production Institute, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv;
*e-mail: plant_biology@ukr.net;
2Poltava State Agrarian University, Poltava, Ukraine;
3State Biotechnological University, Kharkiv, Ukraine;
4Crop Research Institute, Prague, Czech Republic

Received: 28 August 2023; Revised: 30 September 2023;
Accepted: 27 October 2023; Available on-line: 06 November 2023

The stress-protective effects of plant neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been intensively examined in recent years. However, studies on the GABA influence on stress protective systems in bread wheat cultivars with different drought adaptation strategies are still lacking. The aim of this work was to estimate the GABA effect on the state of antioxidant and osmoprotective systems in etiolated seedlings of two wheat cultivars differing significantly in drought tolerance, namely Doskonala (non-drought-resistant) and Tobak (drought-resistant) under model drought induced by PEG 6000. Two-day-old seedlings were transferred to 15% PEG 6000 and incubated for two days in the absence or presence of GABA. Treatment with 0.1 and 0.5 mM GABA significantly reduced the growth-inhibitory effect of PEG 6000 on the roots and shoots of both cultivars, but to a greater extent on those of non-resistant Doskonala. It was shown that GABA treatment reduced drought-induced accumulation of H2O2 and MDA, stabilized SOD and GPX activity, the level of sugars, anthocyanins and flavonoids in seedlings of both cultivars. Meanwhile GABA treatment enhanced the stress-induced increase in proline content in the Doskonala cultivar, but decreased it in the Tobak, completely prevented stress induced decrease in anthocyanins and flavonoids level in the Tobak and only partially in Doskonala cultivar. Thus, the stabilization of the stress-protective systems functioning in the wheat cultivars and variety-dependent differences in response to GABA were revealed.

The effect of L-glutamic acid and N-acetylcysteine administration on biochemical blood parameters in rats treated with CCl(4)

N. O. Salyha

Institute of Animal Biology NAAS of Ukraine, Lviv;
е-mail: ynosyt@yahoo.com

Received: 30 March 2023; Revised: 19 May 2023;
Accepted: 05 June 2023; Available on-line: 20 June 2023

A toxic organic substance CCl4 is a well known model compound for studying detoxification function of the liver and developing oxidative stress. The goal of the study was to estimate the effect of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration on rat blood parameters upon the toxic effects of CCl4. Experimental male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4, the rats of CCl4/L‑Glu group were additionally injected with L-Glu (750 mg/kg), of CCl4/NAC group – with NAC (150 mg/kg), of CCl4/L-Glu/NAC group – with L-Glu (750 mg/kg) and NAC (150 mg/kg). The duration of the experiment was 24 h. Increased level of lipid peroxides, TBARS, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and decreased glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase activity and GSH content were observed in the blood of the CCl4 treated animals compared to the control untreated group. When animals were additionally injected with L-Glu or L-Glu/NAC, the most of the studied indicators were shown to be close to the control level These results suggest that the mentioned above aminoacids attenuated CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats.

Oxydative stress in type 2 diabetic patients: involvement of HIF-1 alpha AND mTOR genes expression

Y. A. Saenko1, O. O. Gonchar2*, I. M. Mankovska2,
T. I. Drevytska2, L. V. Bratus2, B. M. Mankovsky1,3

1SI “The Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”, Clinic for Adults, Kyiv;
2Department of Hypoxia, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv;

Received: 22 March 2023; Revised: 25 May 2023;
Accepted: 05 June 2023; Available on-line:  20 June 2023

Biochemical and genetic mechanisms of oxidative stress (OS) developing in the blood of patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were studied. Twenty patients with T2DM and 10 healthy persons participated in this study. Lipid peroxidation, the content of protein carbonyls and H2O2 production were measured in blood plasma and erythrocytes as OS biomarkers. Activity of SOD, catalase, and GPx as well as reduced glutathionе (GSH) level in plasma and erythrocytes were estimated. The gene expression of key regulators of oxygen and metabolic homeostasis (HIF-1α and mTOR) in leukocytes were studied. It was found a significant rise in TBARS and protein carbonyls content in plasma as well as H2O2 production in erythrocytes from patients with T2DM compared to control. The diabetic patients also demonstrated an increase in the SOD and catalase activity in plasma and significantly lower GSH content and GPx activity in erythrocytes compared to the healthy participants. The established marked inhibition of mTOR gene expression and the tendency to an increase in HIF-1α gene expression in leukocytes of patients with T2DM may serve as a protective mechanism which counteracts OS developing and oxidative cell damage.

Indices of antioxidant and osmoprotective systems in seedlings of winter wheat cultivars with different frost resistance

T. O. Yastreb1, Yu. E. Kolupaev1,2*, A. I. Kokorev1, B. E. Маkaova2,
N. I. Ryabchun1, O. A. Zmiievska1, G. D. Pospielova2

1Yuriev Plant Production Institute, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv;
2Poltava State Agrarian University, Ukraine;
*e-mail: plant_biology@ukr.net

Received: 02 January 2023; Revised: 27 January 2023;
Accepted: 13 April 2023; Available on-line:  27 April 2023

The functioning of the stress-protective systems of wheat under the action of cold at the early stages of plant development remains poorly studied. The aim of this work was a comparative study of antioxidant activity and the content of sugars and proline as indicators of osmoprotective activity during cold adaptation of seedlings of seven winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that differ significantly in frost resistance. The 3-day-old etiolated seedlings were hardened at 2°C for 6 days and then frozen for 5 h at -6 or -9°C. Two days after freezing, the survival of seedlings was assessed by their ability to grow. A decrease in ROS content, an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and accumulation of sugars in the shoots of high-frost-resistant cultivars during hardening were detected. The absolute values of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase activity correlated positively with the frost resistance of seedlings. The negative correlation between the frost tolerance of the cultivars and the accumulation of proline in the seedlings during hardening was recorded. The possibility of using the studied biochemical indices for frost resistance screening of winter wheat varieties at the seedling stage was stated.

Rhabdomyolysis attenuates activity of semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase as the marker of nephropathy in diabetic rats

O. Hudkova*, I. Krysiuk, L. Drobot, N. Latyshko

Department of Cell Signaling, Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: ogudkova@biohem.kiev.ua

Received: 22 December 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

Amine oxidases are involved in the progression of many diseases and their complications, including renal failure, due to the generation of the three toxic metabolites (H2O2, aldehydes, and ammonia) in the course of biogenic amines oxidative deamination. The participation of the first two products in kidney pathogenesis was confirmed, whereas the role of ammonia as a potential inducer of the nitrozative stress is not yet understood. The aim of the present study was to test how further intensification of oxidative stress would affect diabetes-mediated metabolic changes. For this purpose, a rat model of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis, as a source of powerful oxidative stress due to the release of labile Fe3+ from ruptured myocytes, on the background of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used. The experimental animal groups were as follows: group 1 – ‘Control’, group 2 – ‘Diabetes’, group 3 – ‘Diabetes + rhabdomyolysis’. A multifold increase in semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in the kidney and blood, free radicals (FR), MetHb and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in the blood, as well as the emergence of HbNO in plasma and dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) in the liver of animals in group 2 as compared to control were revealed. An additional increase in FR, HbNO levels in the blood, and DNICs in the liver of animals in the diabetes + rhabdomyolysis group as compared to the diabetes group, which correlated with the appearance of a large amount of Fe3+ in the blood of group 3 animals, was detected. Unexpectedly, we observed the positive regulatory effects in animals of the diabetes + rhabdomyolysis group, in particular, a decreased SSAO activity in the kidney and 3-NT level in plasma, as well as the normalization of activity of pro- and antioxidant enzymes in the blood and liver compared to animals of diabetes group. These consequences mediated by rhabdomyolysis may be the result of NO exclusion from the circulation due to the excessive formation of NO stable complexes in the blood and liver. The data obtained allow us to consider SSAO activity as a marker of renal failure in diabetes mellitus. In addition, we suggest a significant role of nitrosative stress in the development of pathology, and, therefore, recommend NO-traps in the complex treatment of diabetic complications.

Dietary protein defines stress resistance, oxidative damages and antioxidant defense system in Drosophila melanogaster

O. Strilbytska1*, A. Zayachkivska1, T. Strutynska1,
U. Semaniuk1, A. Vaiserman2, O. Lushchak1,3*

1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University,
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology, NAMS, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Research and Development Institute, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 06 April 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

Dietary interventions have been previously shown to influence lifespan in diverse model organisms. Manipulations with macronutrients content including protein and amino acids have a significant impact on various fitness and behavioral traits in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Therefore, we asked if yeast amount of the diet could influence stress resistance and antioxidant defense system in Drosophila. We examined the effects of four diets differing in the relative level of yeast, as a source of protein, on resistance to cold, heat, starvation and oxidative stress induced by menadione as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of oxidative stress markers. Protein restriction as well protein-enriched diet led to a reduction of survival under starvation and oxidative stress conditions. However, enhanced resistance to heat shock was affected by high yeast concentration in the diet. Also, protein-rich diets resulted in higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. Increased levels of protein thiols, low-molecule mass thiols, lipid peroxides in response to high yeast concentration in the diet were detected in females only. Thus, we can assume that consumption of a high protein diet could induce oxidative stress in fruit fly.

Metallothioneins involment in the pathogenesis of synovial tissue inflammation in rats with acute gonarthritis

T. R. Matskiv1,2, D. V. Lytkin3, S. K. Shebeko3, V. V. Khoma2,
V. V. Martyniuk2, L. L. Gnatyshyna1,2, O. B. Stoliar2*

1I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Department of General Chemistry, Ternopil, Ukraine;
2Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Department of Chemistry and Methods its Teaching, Ternopil, Ukraine;
3National University of Pharmacy, Educational and Scientific Institute of Applied Pharmacy, Kharkiv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: Oksana.Stolyar@tnpu.edu.ua

Received: 02 June 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

Zinc (Zn) is involving in the suppressing of inflammation. However, its functionality in the knee joint under the gonarthritis (GA) is not elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of Zn-buffering and stress responsive proteins metallothioneins (MTs) in the pathogenesis of the synovial tissues under the experimental acute GA. The inflammation was induced in rats by intra-articular administration of carrageenan. The concentrations of MTs total protein (MTSH), Zn-bound protein (Zn-MTs), total Zn concentration in the tissue, the indexes of oxidative stress and cholinesterase activity were determined. The level of sialic acids was indicated in the blood serum. The enhancing of sialic acids concentration by 42% and cholinesterase depletion confirmed the pathology. In the animals with GA, total level of Zn in the tissue was correspondent to control. However, the MTSH and Zn-MT levels were elevated (by 79 and 46% respectively). This disproportionate rate can be due to partial oxidation of thiols. The superoxide dismutase activity was elevated, radical scavenging activity and protein carbonylation were correspondent to control, but the levels of catalase, glutathione–S-transferase and glutathione  were decreased by 28-44%, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was increased by 59% compared to control group. Principal Component Analysis confirmed the strong interrelations between MTs and peroxide-related oxidative stress indexes. This preliminary study provides the basis for the understanding of the reason for Zn imbalance in the acute GA as the result of the impairment of thiol redox balance and proposes these biomarkers for the evaluation of knee joint pathologies.

Oxidative stress in rat heart mitochondria under a rotenone model of Parkinson’ disease: a corrective effect of capicor treatment

O. O. Gonchar*, O. O. Klymenko, T. I. Drevytska,
L. V. Bratus, I. M. Mankovska

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
*e-mail: olga.gonchar@i.ua

Received: 22 March 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

Biochemical and genetic mechanisms of oxidative stress (OS) developing in rat heart mitochondria were studied in a rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the effect of Capicor (combination of meldonium dihydrate and gamma-butyrobetain dihydrate) on these mechanisms was evaluated. Experiments  were carried out on adult male Wistar rats: I – intact rats (control); II –with rotenone administration subcutaneously at dose 3 mg/kg per day along 2 weeks; III – with rotenone/Capicor administration: after rotenone intoxication, capicor was injected intraperitoneally at dose 50 mg/kg per day along following 2 weeks. As OS biomarkers, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative modification, H2O2 production, the activity of MnSOD, GPx and glutathione pool indexes were measured. The PD-related genes Parkin (PARK2) and DJ-1 (PARK7) as well as MnSOD and DJ-1 protein expressions were detected. Rotenone intoxication increased the intensity of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative modification, and H2O2 production. These events were accompanied by decreased in GSH content, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx activity. Increased ROS production and impaired antioxidant defenses could result from the established DJ-1 gene and DJ-1 protein deficiency. Capicor administration increased  the endogenous antioxidant defense, weakening the lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of mitochondrial proteins. Capicor treatment led to an increase in GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio in heart mitochondria that may serve as additional indicators of the OS intensity reducing. Capicor promoted overexpression of DJ-1 and PARK2 genes in the heart that may indicate a rise in mitophagy and a decrease in OS.

Protective effect of Atriplex halimus extract against benzene-induced haematotoxicity in rats

K. Zeghib1*, D. A. Boutlelis2, S. Menai3, M. Debouba4

1Department of chemistry, Faculty of exact sciences, University of El-Oued, El-Oued, Algeria;
2Department of Biology, Faculty of natural sciences and life, University of El-Oued, El-Oued, Algeria;
3The mother-child hospital (Bachir Bennacer) of El-Oued, El-Oued, Algeria;
4Higher Institute of Applied Biology of Medenine, University of Gabès, Tunisia;
*e-mail: zeghib-khaoula@univ-eloued.dz

Received: 24 December 2020; Accepted: 07 July 2021

Benzen (BZ) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with a toxic effect mainly aimed at the hematopoietic­ and immune systems. Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae) is a Mediterranean halophytic shrub traditionally used in North Africa as medicinal plant  for several therapeutic uses. The present study aimed to estimate the preventive and curative effects of Atriplex halimus L. (Ah) aqueous extract against BZ-induced hematotoxici­ty in rats. Analysis of the extract by the method of LC-MS revealed the presence of 7 vitamins, among which vitamin  C content was the highest. Adult rats were divided into five groups as follow: Group 1 received water (control); Group 2 received orally Ah aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) 3 days/week  for 15 weeks; Group 3 received BZ (100 mg/kg b.w) daily in drinking water for 15 weeks; Group 4 received concomitantly BZ (100 mg/kg) and  preventive treatment with Ah (200 mg/kg) for 15 weeks (AhP+BZ); Group 5 first received BZ (100 mg/kg) for 11 weeks and then curative treatment with Ah extract (300 mg/kg) daily for 30 days (BZ+AhC). It was shown that sub-chronic exposure to benzene induced leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, granulocytopenia and massive degeneration of the bone marrow tissue. The level of GSH and activity of GST and CAT were significantly lowered and the level of MDA was increased in the blood and bone marrow in rats of BZ-intoxicated group compared to the control rats. Administration of Ah extract recovered the bone marrow structure, dramatically decreased MDA content and increased GSH and CAT activity and GST level in the blood and bone marrow as compared with the indices in BZ-treated group. These observations demonstrate that curative and, to a lesser extent, preventive treatment with Atriplex halimus extract have therapeutic potential against hematotoxicity induced by benzene.

Sex dependent differences in oxidative stress in the heart of rats with type 2 diabetes

N. I. Gorbenko1*, O. Yu. Borikov2, O. V. Ivanova1, T. V. Kiprych1,
E. V. Taran1, T. I. Gopciy2, Т. S. Litvinova1

1SI “V. Danilevsky Institute for Endocrine Pathology Problems of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kharkiv;
2V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov, Ukraine;.
*е-mail: Gorbenkonat58@ukr.net

Received: 17 September 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2021

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is known to double mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in which oxidative stress plays an important role. It is suggested that the impact of diabetes on CVD risk may vary depending on gender. The aim of the study was to assess oxidative stress parameters in the heart of 12 weeks old male and female Wistar rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by high-calorie diet followed by intraperitoneal streptozotocin injections. The level of advanced oxidation protein products, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the isolated heart mitochondria and NADPH-oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity in the post-mitochondrial  supernatant fraction were determined. It was shown that T2DM induced more pronounced oxidative stress confirmed by the increased level of advanced oxidation protein products in the heart mitochondria of males than females. The data obtained indicate that the main reason of oxidative stress in the heart of diabetic males is the activation of non-mitochondrial  sources of reactive oxygen species. While in the heart of diabetic female rats it is the  decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity in mitochondria. These results justify the necessity of gender-specific therapy for the prevention and management of diabetic CVD.