Tag Archives: oxidative stress

Effects of alpha-ketoglutarate on lifespan and functional aging of Drosophila melanogaster flies

M. P. Lylyk1, M. M. Bayliak1, H. V. Shmihel1,
J. M. Storey2, K. B. Storey2, V. I. Lushchak1

1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada;
e-mail: lushchak@pu.if.ua; bayliak@ukr.net

The effects of an alpha-ketoglutarate-supplemented diet on lifespan and functional senescence were evaluated in the Canton S strain of Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest that effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) are dose- and gender-dependent. In males, diets containing 1-10 mM AKG did not affect mean and maximum lifespans, except that an increased maximum lifespan observed at 10 mM AKG. Diet with 20 mM AKG shortened median lifespan and had no effect on maximum lifespan of males. In females, diets with low concentrations of AKG (1 and 5 mM) did not affect lifespan, whereas diets supplemented with 10 and 20 mM AKG increased both median and maximum lifespans. At a lifespan-prolonging concentration (10 mM), AKG decreased fecundity, increased cold resistance and had no effect on climbing activity or resistance to oxi­dative stress in flies of either gender at middle (24 days) and old (40 days) ages. Moreover, middle-aged AKG-fed females but not males were more resistant to heat stress that was accompanied by higher levels of HSP90 protein as compared with controls. Middle-aged flies on AKG-supplemented diets showed elevated oxidative stress and had higher total protein and triacylglycerol levels as compared with controls. Hence, anti-aging effects of AKG do not seem to be related to preventing oxidative stress development but involve metabolic rearrangement and synthesis of specific protective proteins, which aid to resist destructive processes with age.

Evaluation of metallothioneins, oxidative stress and signs of cytotoxicity in young obese women

H. I. Falfushynska, O. I. Horyn, V. V. Khoma, G. V. Tereshchuk,
D. V. Osadchuk, N. I. Rusnak, O. B. Stoliar

Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: falfushynska@tnpu.edu.ua

Obesity is rapidly increasing all over the world and pretends to be the global medical and social problem. Thus, the understanding of early signs of obesity and suitable biomarkers is urgently needed for developing an adequate strategy of the obesity prevention and a decrease in its growth rate. The parameters of the lipids’ metabolism and oxidative stress, metallothioneins and signs of cytotoxicity have been investigated in blood samples of young obese women (O-group, 32 < Body Mass Index (BMI) < 37). With regard to persons of O-group they had higher catalase activity (by 435%), level of reactive oxygen species (by 129%), level of oxidised glutathione (by 55%), lipid peroxidation (by 26%) and protein carbonyls (by 345%) in the blood, when compared with control. The obesity was accompanied by an increase in concentration of metallothioneins which have a partial tread effect on radical processes and reduce manifestations of oxidative damage to biomolecules in obese patients. The obese women had the signs of cytotoxicity as higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (by 387%) and DNA fragmentation (by 42%). The principal component analysis revealed the set of biological traits which describes the obesity progress and it included metallothioneins, parameters of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, BMI and a concentration of low density lipoproteins and total cholesterol. The BMI was in a good correlation with parameters of the lipid metabolism, oxidative injury and cytotoxicity (r > |0.73|, P < 0.001).

Effects of L-glutamic acid and pyridoxine on glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation generated by epinephrine-induced stress in rats

N. O. Salyha

Institute of Animal Biology, NAAS of Ukraine, Lviv;
е-mail: ynosyt@yahoo.com

The main goal of this research was to investigate and compare the protective effects of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) alone and combined with Pyridoxine (L-Glu+Pyridoxine) for the purpose of suppression and mitigation of epinephrine-induced stress in rats. This study outlines possible links between changes of reduced glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes activity and content of the lipid peroxidation products after administration of the above-mentioned substances and under the action of stress in various tissues of rats. The obtained results suggest that the GSH level was significantly inhibited by stress in all investigated tissues (except kidneys). We have shown that under the stress, activities of glutathione-associated enzymes were changed (mainly decreased) in all investigated tissues. In rats, additionally received L-Glu and L-Glu+Pyridoxine, much less changes or lack of changes in studied parameters were observed. The content of lipid peroxidation products (lipid peroxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in myocardium, liver and kidney tissues of experimental groups under the stress conditions were significantly higher compared to the control. While in experimental groups that received L-Glu and L-Glu+Pyridoxine LOOH content in kidney, spleen and liver and TBARS content in spleen, liver and myocardium were almost at the level of control values. These results indicate that L-Glu and L-Glu+Pyridoxine can mitigate and suppress epinephrine-induced stress in rats.

Nitrate and nitrite in drinking water affect antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of rats

E. Sierra-Campos1, M. A. Valdez-Solana1, M. I. Campos-Almazán1,
C. Avitia-Domínguez2, J. L. Hernández-Rivera1, J. A. De Lira-Sánchez1,
G. Garcia-Arenas3, A. Téllez-Valencia2

1Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Campus Gómez Palacio, University Juarez of Durango State, Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico;
e-mail: ericksier@gmail.com;
2Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Campus Durango, University Juarez of Durango State, Durango, Mexico;
3Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus Gómez Palacio, University Juarez of Durango State, Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico

The present study evaluated the effect of short term intake of nitrite and nitrate drinking water on the antioxidant system and membrane damage of rat erythrocytes. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows; the group I received only distilled water ad libitum; the group II was given water with nitrate (a dose of 124 mg/kg of nitrate-nitrogen) as drinking water and the group III was given nitrites dissolved in distilled water in a dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days. At the end of the study, group III rats showed a significant decrease in activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and catalase (CAT), while in group II rats, the activity of GPx and CAT were significantly reduced, but no significant changes in glutathione reductase activity and peroxynitrite levels were observed. On the other hand, malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased in both groups with respect to group I. Also, our major results indicate that all treatments changed methemoglobin levels and osmotic fragility in comparison to group I rats. The intensity of alterations was found more severe in rats of group III, followed by rats of group II. It can be concluded from these observations that nitrate or nitrite leads to alterations in the erythrocytes antioxidant defense status mainly throughout NADPH relate enzymes.

Evaluation of biological effects of cobalt-nanocomposites with the use of biochemical markers of bivalve mollusk Anodonta cygnea

H. I. Falfushynska1, L. L. Gnatyshyna1, O. B. Stoliar1, N. E. Mitina2, O. S. Zaichenko2, Ye. Z. Filyak3, R. S. Stoika3

1Volodymyr Hnatiuk Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: halynka.f@gmail.com,  oksana.stolyar@gmail.com;
2Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine;
3Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
e-mail: stoika@cellbiol.lviv.ua

Intensive implementation of nanomaterials requires development of novel methods for evalua­tion of their potential ecotoxicity. The aim of our study was to identify specific characteristics of the effect of cobalt-nanocomposite (Co-NC) on the molecular stress-responsive system in the digestive gland of bivalve mollusk Anodonta cygnea. Nanocomposite was synthesized by mixing alcohol solution of copolymer N-vinylpirrolidone, 5-(tret-butylperoxy)-5-methyl-1-hexene-3-yne and dimethylaminoethylmetacrylate and cobalt (II) chloride. After 14 days of the mollusk exposure in the presence of Co-NC, CoCl2 or corresponding polymer substance it was shown that the Co NC, in contrast to other agents, does not cause an oxidative stress due to the superoxide dismutase activity, metallotioneins (MTs) level, glutathione redox index and oxyradical production. Multivaria­te analysis confirmed specific features of the Co NC’s effect related to an enhanced expression of MTs, while CoCl2 activated lactate dehydrogenate and oxyradical production, and polymer substance enhanced glutathione transferase activity.

Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves

Y. V. Vasylyk, V. I. Lushchak

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frasnkivk, Ukraine;
e-mail: lushchak@pu.if.ua

The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase – at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response – an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions.

Intensity of oxidative stress and activity of angiotensin converting enzyme in blood of patients with uncomplicated pyelonephritis

L. V. Korol, L. Ya. Mygal, N. M. Stepanova

State Institution Institute of Nephrology, National Academy
of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: lesyakorol@meta.ua

The purpose of this work was to study the correlation between oxidative stress (OS) marker and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in patients with chronic kidney disease stages I-II (uncomplicated pyelonephritis). The 32 patients with uncomplicated pyelonephritis and 30 healthy volunteers (women, age – 18-40 years) were involved in this study. The content of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, protein carbonyl groups, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, the SH-groups, the total peroxidase activity of erythrocytes were determined by colorimetric method. OS index was calculated. To evaluate the functional state of the renal parenchyma the activity of tubular lysosome enzymes a total β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and β-galactosidase were determined in urine. The correlation analysis between activities of ACE and OS was performed. The ACE increased activity was shown on the background of violations of pro/antioxidant balance. The correlation analysis confirmed the presence of a moderate relationship between ACE activity and the majority of the studied parameters. Thus, an increase in ACE activity, intensification of oxidative processes, decrease of antioxidant defense contributes to the development of local OS, as well as the development of dysfunction in renal tubular system (according to the increased activity of renal specific enzymes in the urine).

Changes in oxidative stress intensity in blood of tumor-bearing rats following different modes of administration of rhenium-platinum system

K. L. Shamelashvili1, N. I. Shtemenko2, І. V. Leus3, S. O. Babiy4, O. V. Shtemenko5

 1SE “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy” of Health Ministry of Ukraine;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma-city, USA;
4Institute of Gastroenterology, National Academy of Medical Sciences
of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk;
5Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology, Dnipropetrovsk;
e-mail: shamelashvili@rambler.ru

Effects of the different modes of administration of dichlorotetra-μ-isobutyratodirhenium(ІІІ) – І – (in water solution, liposomes, nanoliposomes and together with cisplatin – in the rhenium-platinum system) on the intensity of lipid peroxidation (LP) in blood plasma and the activity of the erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were investigated on the model of tumor growth. A decrease in the concentration of TBA-active substances caused by dirhenium compounds was shown to be independent of the administration mode and the extent of the tumor growth inhibition. I was four-times more effective in inhibition of the LP burst than any known antioxidant. I induced the increasing activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and decreasing activity of catalase. In vitro experiments with native superoxide dismutase, the interaction of І with following activation of the active center of the enzyme was confirmed and the superoxide dismutase activity of І was shown, that may contribute to the enhancement of the enzyme activity in vivo. The cluster rhenium compounds may be promising nontoxic potent antioxidants capable of deactivating superoxide radicals.

Tissue specificity of lipid peroxidation under emotional stress in rats

K. O. Menabde, G. M. Burjanadze, M. V.  Сhachua,
Z. T. Kuchukashvili, N. I. Koshoridze

Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia;
e-mail: ketimenabde@yahoo.com

The intensity of lipid peroxidation and activi­ty of antioxidant system enzymes in the blood plasma, brain and cardial muscle of laboratory rats under 40 days of isolation and violation of diurnal cycle was studied. The obtained data show that on the background of concentration changes in NO changes also take place in the intensity of lipid peroxidation process, indicated by changes in the concentration of TBA-active products and diene conjugates.
The changes taking place in the activity of superoxidedismutase, catalase, succinatdehydrogenase, creatine kinase and aldolase under stress were studied.
The resulting data show that isolation of animals and violation of diurnal cycle are the factors causing a significant reduction in the energy metabolism in the brain and heart tissue cells and resulting in oxidative stress that, in its turn, may become the reason for development of toxic radicals.
Furthermore, prolonged stress may result in irreversible processes that are considered to be the reasons for significant pathologies of the cardiovascular system.

Mild oxidative stress in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster caused by products of sucrose splitting

B. M. Rovenko, O. V. Lushchak, O. V. Lozinsky,
O. I. Kubrak, V. I. Lushchak

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
e-mail: olehl@pu.if.ua

The influence of 6% sucrose and equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose in larva diet on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids as well as the activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Larva growing on the diet with sucrose led to the mild oxidative stress development in adult insects, which was differently expressed in both sexes. In males mainly molecules of proteins were subjected to oxidative damages, whereas in females – lipid molecules. This is evidenced by 77% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and decreased (by 40%) level of protein SH-groups in males fed on sucrose. In females fed on sucrose the content of lipid peroxides was by 44% higher, than in individuals, hold on the diet with equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose. The oxidative stress in females was accompanied with increased activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiredoxin reductase by 30, 15 and 34%, respectively. The obtained results suggest that uptake mode of glucose and fructose affects free radical processes in fruit flies.