Tag Archives: wheat

Characterization of lectins from wheat seedlings infected with Fusarium graminearum and treated by jasmonic acid

O. О. Molodchenkova1*, O. V. Ryshchakova1,
T. V. Kartuzova1, L. T. Mishchenko2

1Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute – National Center of Seed
and Cultivar Investigation, Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, Odesa, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olgamolod@ukr.net;
2ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”,
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: lmishchenko@ukr.net

Received: 24 February 2023; Revised: 27 April 2023;
Accepted: 05 June 2023; Available on-line: 20 June 2023

Fusarium head blight is one of the most serious diseases of wheat caused by a range of Fusarium fungi, which infects the heads of the crop, reducing grain yield. Lectins that specifically bind carbohydrate ligands of various chemical nature and Jasmonic acid (JA) as a key regulator of plant development play an important role in plant protective responses to biotic factors. The goal of the study was to determine the activity and biochemical characteristics of soluble lectins in wheat seedlings of varieties ‘Lastivka odeska’ with a high resiliency to Fusarium graminearum and ‘Nikonia odeska’ susceptible to Fusarium graminearum­. Wheat seedlings were grown on the media containing pathogenic infection or JA solution. Lectins were purified by affinity chromatography and separated by electrophoresis in 15% PAGE. Lectin activity was determined by the method of trypsinized blood erythrocytes hemagglutination. Molecular mass of the main components of lectins from ‘Lastivka odeska’ seedlings was determined to be 67, 60, 45 kDa, and of the main component of lectins from ‘Nikonia odeska’ seedlings – 45 kDa. Lectins isolated from the control untreated seedlings had preferential affinity for N-acetylglucosamine, D-galactosamine and D-fructose-6-phosphate. It was shown that both at pathogen action or JA treatment, lectin activity in the seedlings of resistant variety ‘Lastivka odeska’ was increased while in the seedlings of susceptible variety ‘Nikonia odeska’ it was decreased as compared to control. At the joint action of pathogen and JA, lectin activity in the seedlings of susceptible variety increased compared with the infected seedlings. The results obtained can be used for the development of biochemical methods for assessing the degree of wheat varieties resiliency to fusariose.

Signal function of cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine in the reaction of Triticum aestivum L. mesophyll cells to hyperthermia

M. M. Musienko, V. V. Zhuk, L. M. Batsmanova

ESC Institute of Biology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: zhuk_bas@voliacable.com

The signaling effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on leaf mesophyll cells of Triticum aestivum L. under hyperthermic conditions was studied­. It was found that BAP regulated photosynthetic pigment, hydrogen peroxide content and activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase under high-temperature conditions. The additive effect of BAP and high temperature on the activation of cell antioxidant systems was demonstrated. BAP regulated reducing processes in mesophyll leaf cells under high-temperature conditions.

Relationship between RNA/DNA ratio, growth rate and accumulation of selenium in the cells of wheat leaves under the influence of minerals analcime and trepel

O. I. Martynenko1, T. K. Kyrylenko1, N. V. Zaimenko2, M. M. Antonyuk3,
A. V. Stepanyugin1, D. P. Plodnik4, D. M. Hovorun1,4

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Gardens, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
3National University of Food Technonogies, Kyiv, Ukraine;
4Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
e-mail: Martynenko.Olena@gmail.com

We studied specific effects of different doses of natural minerals – analcime (An) and trepel (Tr) – on the growth rate, selenium (Se) content and functional activity of the genome of wheat leaves measured by the RNA/DNA ratio. Our results show that under the influence of An and Tr, especially at low doses (25 mg/100 g sand), there is a significant increase in the content of Se, increased growth rate of leaves of wheat seedlings and decreased RNA/DNA ratio. We have found significant correlations between studied parameters. Our fin­dings suggest that the RNA/DNA ratio can be used as a convenient, reliable indicator of the biological activity of minerals An and Tr, and for quantitative express-estimation of their impact on plant organisms.