Tag Archives: diet

Bioenergetic functions of mitochondria in liver, pancreatic acinar cells, and sperm cells of rats fed short-term high-fat or high-fat high-sugar diets

B. V. Manko1*, N. M. Kozopas1,2, H. M. Mazur1,
A. М. Voityk1, B. O. Manko1, V. V. Manko1

1Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,
Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Lviv, Ukraine;
2Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University,
Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Lviv, Ukraine;
*e-mail: bohdan.manko.ablb@lnu.edu.ua

Received: 26 September 2023; Revised: 23 October 2023;
Accepted: 27 October 2023; Available on-line: November 2023

An unhealthy diet often is a cause of obesity, chronic inflammation, and metabolic disruption in multiple organs. However, the direct influence of elevated lipid or sugar consumption on liver, pancreatic, and sperm mitochondria is not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the functional activity of mitochondria of liver, pancreatic acinar cells, and sperm cells in rats on a short-term (7 weeks) diet with high fat or high fat and high sugar content. Male Wistar rats were on a basic, high-fat or high-fat high-sugar diet for 7 weeks. At the end of the experiment, visceral fat mass, blood glucose and lipids were measured. Mitochondrial functional activity was evaluated with oxygen consumption assay. In isolated pancreatic acinar cells, NAD(P)H autofluorescence and mitochondrial membrane potential were also studied. No difference in body mass was observed between the 3 groups at the end of the experiment. Visceral fat mass was slightly but significantly elevated in rats on a high-fat high-sugar diet. Both diets did not affect plasma glucose or triglyceride levels but caused a modest elevation of total plasma cholesterol. Respiration and oxidative phosphorylation of isolated liver mitochondria were not affected by any experimental diet. In pancreatic acinar cells, a high-fat diet caused a significant decrease of basal respiration by ~15%, but no effects were observed on the maximal rate of uncoupled respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, or NAD(P)H autofluorescence. In these cells, a ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate caused elevation of uncoupled respiration and NAD(P)H level irrespectively of the diet. Diets did not cause any change in sperm concentration, viability or motility. Surprisingly, in animals on a high-fat high-sugar diet, a significant increase in both basal and maximal respiration of sperm cells was observed. Collectively, these data show that while the elevated fat and sugar content in the diet does not cause significant obesity, no detrimental effects on mitochondria of the liver, pancreas, and sperm cells are observed.

Developmental diet defines metabolic traits in larvae and adult Drosophila

O. M. Strilbytska1*, U. V. Semaniuk1, N. I. Burdyliyk1, V. Bubalo2, O. V. Lushchak1,3*

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology and Mutagenesis, L. I. Medved’s Research Center of Preventive Toxicology, Food and Chemical Safety, MHU, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Research and Development University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 04 October 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

The influence of the developmental nutrition on adult metabolism and overall performance becomes a hot topic of modern evolutionary biology. We used fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and experimental nutrition media composed of different sucrose content (S) and dry yeast content (Y): 0S:2Y, 20S:2Y or 0S:5Y, 20S:5Y to show that the developmental nutrition conditions define metabolism in larvae and adults. The level of glucose, glycogen, triglycerids and total lipids in the larvae and flies body were measured with the diagnostic assay kits. We found that individuals developed on either low-yeast or high-sugar diet showed delayed developmental rate. When kept on the diets with high sucrose content the larvae and adult flies had lower weight and higher amount of lipids as energy reserves. Restriction of dry yeast content in the diet of larvae led to a decrease in glycogen storage and protein levels in larvae and adult flies. The results obtained indicate that the metabolic traits revealed in adult flies are the result of nutrition during development and may be associated with mechanisms of organisms adaptation to the developmental nutritional conditions.

Yeast concentration in the diet defines Drosophila metabolism of both parental and offspring generations

O. M. Strilbytska1*, N. P. Stefanyshyn1,
U. V. Semaniuk1, O. V. Lushchak1,2*

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Research and Development University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 18 April 2021; Accepted: 12 November 2021

Parental dietary nutrients epigenetically influence offspring metabolism. Our analysis revealed unforeseen patterns in how enzymes of the main metabolic pathways respond to protein content in the diet. We reared parental flies Drosophila melanogaster on four types of diet with different dry yeast concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 15%. The subsequent generation was fed by the same diet, so the only variable in the experiments was the yeast concentration in the parental diet. We showed that protein restriction in the parental diet led to higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in parents, and this effect was inherited in their progeny. The transgenerational effect of parental dietary yeast on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was found only in males. An elevated level of dietary yeast was sufficient to enhance alanine transaminase ( ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity in parents, however, did not affect ALT activity and decreased AST  in their offspring. A low yeast parental diet was shown to cause higher urea content in F1 males. It is concluded that parental dietary yeast plays a critical role in metabolic health that can be inherited through generation.

Dietary protein defines stress resistance, oxidative damages and antioxidant defense system in Drosophila melanogaster

O. Strilbytska1*, A. Zayachkivska1, T. Strutynska1,
U. Semaniuk1, A. Vaiserman2, O. Lushchak1,3*

1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University,
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology, NAMS, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Research and Development Institute, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 06 April 2021; Accepted: 22 September 2021

Dietary interventions have been previously shown to influence lifespan in diverse model organisms. Manipulations with macronutrients content including protein and amino acids have a significant impact on various fitness and behavioral traits in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Therefore, we asked if yeast amount of the diet could influence stress resistance and antioxidant defense system in Drosophila. We examined the effects of four diets differing in the relative level of yeast, as a source of protein, on resistance to cold, heat, starvation and oxidative stress induced by menadione as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of oxidative stress markers. Protein restriction as well protein-enriched diet led to a reduction of survival under starvation and oxidative stress conditions. However, enhanced resistance to heat shock was affected by high yeast concentration in the diet. Also, protein-rich diets resulted in higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. Increased levels of protein thiols, low-molecule mass thiols, lipid peroxides in response to high yeast concentration in the diet were detected in females only. Thus, we can assume that consumption of a high protein diet could induce oxidative stress in fruit fly.

Dietary sucrose defines lifespan and metabolism in Drosophila

O. Strilbytska, T. Strutynska, U. Semaniuk,
N. Burdyliyk, O. Lushchak*

Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 28 February 2020; Accepted: 25 June 2020

Nutrition affects various life-history traits. We used fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and metabolism, are affected by dietary sucrose content. We fed flies by four different diets containing constant yeast concentration and increasing amounts of sugar ranged from 1% to 20%. We found that low sucrose diet increases female lifespan. We also showed, that low dietary sucrose maximized malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase activity in males and lactate dehydrogenase activity in females. In addition, dietary carbohydrate has a considerable impact on urea level, suggesting that dietary carbohydrate impacts overall metabolism. Our findings reveal the influence of dietary sugar on metabolic enzymes activities, indicating an existence of optimal nutritional conditions for prolongevity phenotype and confirming an important impact of dietary sugar on life-history traits.

Biochemical mechanisms of chromium action in the human and animal organism

R. Ya. Iskra, V. G. Yanovych

Institute of Animal Biology, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Lviv, Ukraine;
e-mail: ruslana_iskra@inenbiol.com.ua

Modern data concerning biologic characteristics of chromium (Cr3+) its placement in nature, accessibility and metabolic action of its different forms in humans and animals is presented in this survey. Essentiality of chromium for humans is emphasized, data about consumption norms of this microelement and its use for curing different diseases especially diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis of vessels are presented. The biochemical mechanisms of Cr3+ effect on the metabolism in the human and animal organism are analyzed. It is shown that the organism reacts to chrome additions by the change of some metabolism links. Chrome influences positively growth and development of foetus, stimulates metabolism of glucose and insulin in the humans and animals. However, at the set chromium requirements it is necessary to take into account its low availability in food, high release of Cr3+ from the organism under the influence of stress factors, considerable decline of its level with age, and also in the period of pregnancy and lactation. Therefore experimental researches of introduction of Cr3+ additions to the diet of people and forage of animals taking into account their body mass, age and clinical state, can explain the biochemical mechanisms of biological action of this microelement.

Mild oxidative stress in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster caused by products of sucrose splitting

B. M. Rovenko, O. V. Lushchak, O. V. Lozinsky,
O. I. Kubrak, V. I. Lushchak

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
e-mail: olehl@pu.if.ua

The influence of 6% sucrose and equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose in larva diet on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids as well as the activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Larva growing on the diet with sucrose led to the mild oxidative stress development in adult insects, which was differently expressed in both sexes. In males mainly molecules of proteins were subjected to oxidative damages, whereas in females – lipid molecules. This is evidenced by 77% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and decreased (by 40%) level of protein SH-groups in males fed on sucrose. In females fed on sucrose the content of lipid peroxides was by 44% higher, than in individuals, hold on the diet with equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose. The oxidative stress in females was accompanied with increased activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiredoxin reductase by 30, 15 and 34%, respectively. The obtained results suggest that uptake mode of glucose and fructose affects free radical processes in fruit flies.

Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster

B. M. Rovenko, V. I. Lushchak, O. V. Lushchak

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
е-mail address: olehl@pu.if.ua

The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the  level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40–50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60–70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes – glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.