Tag Archives: flow cytometry

Plasminogen modulates formation of reactive oxygen species in human platelets

A. A. Tykhomyrov, D. D. Zhernosekov, M. M. Guzyk, V. V. Korsa, T. V. Grinenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: artem_tykhomyrov@ukr.net

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important signalling molecules controlling many platelet functions. ROS production has been shown to be augmented by platelet activation, however, plasminogen (Pg) has not been studied in the context of modulating intraplatelet ROS levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of different Pg forms to affect platelet metabolic activity/survival and intracellular ROS production in resting and activated platelets. Platelets isolated from donor plasma were pre-treated with Glu- or Lys-Pg (1.2 µM) and activated by thrombin (1.0 NIH unit/ml) or collagen (1.25 mg/ml). MTT assay was adapted to estimate total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, while intracellular ROS levels were monitored with the use of H2DCF-DA probe by flow cytometry. Lys-Pg was shown to slightly, but significantly, mitigate MTT reduction (P < 0.05 vs. control platelets). Two-fold elevation in metabolic activity of platelets stimulated by thrombin as compared to untreated cells was observed. However, this activation was less exhibi­ted in the case of platelets pre-incubated with either Glu- of Lys-Pg, with a predominant effect of Lys-Pg. Unlike thrombin, collagen treatment dramatically suppressed metabolic activity of platelets by 60% compared to control (P < 0.05). Glu- or Lys-Pg pre-incubation had no effects on the activity of collagen-stimulated platelets. Two subpopulations of platelets were observed with distinct characteristics of intracellular ROS formation. Elevated ROS production was demonstrated in these populations of both thrombin- and collagen-treated platelets. Pg (Lys-form to greater extent) enhanced intracellular ROS generation in thrombin-stimulated platelets. These findings suggest that augmented ROS generation within platelets pre-treated with Pg followed by their stimulation may result in down-regulation of their survival and functional activity. This study adds to our understanding one more possible mechanism of Pg impact on the platelet function.

Transmembrane Ca(2+) exchange in depolarized rat myometrium mitochondria

L. G. Babich, S. G. Shlykov, N. V. Kandaurova, S. A. Kosterin

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: babich@biochem.kiev.ua

Polarization of the inner membrane is the key factor in maintenance of the physiologically significant cations accumulation, in particular Ca2+, in the mitochondria. It has been well established that mitochondria accumulate calcium through the uniporter, driven by the mitochondrial membrane potential.  Nevertheless, it has been shown that depolarized mitochondria also accumulate Ca2+. The aim of this paper is to investigate free Ca level in depolarized myometrium mitochondria. As we have shown previously Ca2+ addition to the incubation medium, that did not contain K-phosphate, ATP and Mg2+, led to inner mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Nevertheless Ca2+ addition to such medium led to the concentration-dependent accumulation of this cation in the matrix. RuR or Mg addition to the incubation medium led to the higher elevation of mitochondrial Ca2+ level in depolarized mitochondria. Mitochondrial Ca2+ level was not affected by 5 µM cyclosporine A. It was suggested that Н+/Са2+ exchanger could provide calcium accumulation in depolarized mitochondria. The elevation of mitochondrial Ca2+ level after addition of Mg2+ and RuR may be due to inhibition of Ca2+ efflux through Ca2+ uniporter.

Comparative investigation by spectrofluorimetry and flow cytometry of plasma and inner mitochondrial membranes polarisation in smooth muscle cell using potential-sensitive probe DIOC(6)(3)

G. V. Danylovych, Yu. V. Danylovych, V. F. Gorchev

Palladine Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: danylovych@biochem.kiev.ua

Possibility of the use of flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry analysis for investigation mitochondria and plasma membrane polarization in myometrium cell suspension using potential-sensitive probe 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine [DiOC6(3)] has been demonstrated. The obtained results confirm the use of DiOC6(3) for studying the influence of effectors on transmembrane potentials of intact cell compartments.

Rhamnazin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human jurkat leukemia cells in vitro

А. А. Philchenkov, М. P. Zavelevych

R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: apoclub@i.ua

Antiproliferative and apoptogenic effects of rhamnazin, a dimethoxylated derivative of quercetin, were studied in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells. The cytotoxicity and apoptogenic activity of rhamnazin in vitro are inferior to that of quercetin. The apoptogenic activity of rhamnazin is realized via mitochondrial pathway and associated with activation of caspase-9 and -3. The additive apoptogenic effect of rhamnazin and suboptimal doses of etoposide, a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor, is demonstrated. Therefore, methylation of quercetin modifies its biological effects considerably.

Dynamics of thrombin-induced exposition of actin on the platelet surface

A. A. Tykhomyrov

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: artem_tykhomyrov@ukr.net

Platelets play the key role in thrombosis and are also involved in angiogenesis as well as immune and reparative responses. In the function cascade, platelets undergo a complex cell processing, and subcellular fragments, not detectable in the resting state, are exposed on platelet surface after stimulation with agonists. This study has been performed to evaluate dynamic characteristics of actin exposition on the surface of plasma membrane of thrombin-activated platelets. Using flow-cytometric assay, it has been observed that the level of actin presented on activated platelets directly depends on agonist concentration. In the case of platelet stimulation with thrombin in the highest concentration (1.0 U/ml) taken for this study, the level of actin exposed on activated platelets was up to 4.4 times higher as compared with resting cells. Confirmation of the flow cytometry data for cell-surface actin on thrombin-activated platelets was achieved by direct visualization using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. Period of actin exposition appeared to be longer than the time phase corresponding to platelet secretion stage. Functional role of platelet surface actin has required further detailed studying, however, it is thought that superficial actin could interact with various blood plasma proteins, including plasminogen and its activators, serving as a binding site and/or center for their pericellular processing.

Modulation of myometrium mitochondrial membrane potential by calmodulin antagonists

S. G. Shlykov, L. G. Babich, M. E. Yevtushenko, S. O. Karakhim, S. O. Kosterin

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: sshlykov@biochem.kiev.ua

Influence of calmodulin antagonists on mitochondrial membrane potential  was investigated using­ a flow cytometry method, confocal microscopy and fluorescent potential-sensitive probes TMRM and MTG. Influence of different concentrations of calmodulin antagonists on mitochondrial membrane potential  was studied  using flow cytometry method and a fraction of myometrium mitochondria of unpregnant rats. It was shown that 1-10 µМ calmidazolium gradually reduced mitochondria membrane potential. At the same time 10-100 µМ trifluope­razine influenced as follows: 10 µМ – increased polarization, while 100 µМ – caused almost complete depolarization of mitochondrial membranes. In experiments which were conducted with the use of confocal microscopy method and myometrium cells it was shown, that MTG addition to the incubation medium­ led to the appearance of fluorescence signal in a green range. Addition of the second probe (ТМRM) resulted in the appearance of fluorescent signal in a red range. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization by 1µМ СССР or 10 mМ NaN3 was accompanied by the decline of “red” fluo­rescence intensity, “green” fluorescence was kept. The 10-15 minute incubation of myometrium cells in the presen­ce 10 µМ calmidazolium or 100 µМ trifluoperazine was accompanied by almost complete decrease of the TMRM fluorescent signal. Thus, with the use of potential-sensitive fluorescent probes TMRM and MTG it was shown, that calmodulin antagonists modulate mitochondrial membrane potential of myometrium cells.