Tag Archives: phagocytosis

Born in Ukraine: Nobel prize Winners Ilya Mechnikov, Selman Waksman, Roald Hoffmann AND Georges Charpak

T. V. Danylova1, S. V. Komisarenko2

1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: danilova_tv@ukr.net;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: svk@biochem.kiev.ua

Received: 18 February 2019; Accepted: 14 March 2019

Our country has not yet gained recognition from a Nobel Committee, however, some Nobel Prize winners were born in the territory, which belongs to present-day Ukraine. Among them are the father of innate cellular immunity Ilya Mechnikov; the famous microbiologist and biochemist Selman Waksman, whose studies had led to the discovery of streptomycin; the outstanding chemist, poet and playwright Roald Hoffmann, and the prominent physicist Georges Charpak who invented and developed particle detectors, in particular, the multiwire proportional chamber. This paper aims to outline briefly the main stages of their scientific activity.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens MPT63 and MPT83 increase phagocytic activity of murine peritoneal macrophages

A. A. Siromolot1,2, O. S. Oliinyk2, D. V. Kolibo2,1, S. V. Komisarenko2

1Educational and Scientific Centre Institute of Biology,
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine;
2Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: saa0205@ukr.net

Macrophages (MΦ) are the most described and characterized target and host of mycobacteria. Like other cells of innate immunity MΦ have a wide range of receptor molecules which interact with different pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Immunodominant proteins MPT63 and MPT83 that are synthesized in abundance by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains could be involved in development of tuberculosis infection. The aim of this study was to search for effects of these mycobacterial antigens on target cells. For this aim full-sized sequences of MPT83 (rMPT83full) and MPT63 antigens were cloned into plasmid pET24a(+). The increase of phagocytic activity of murine peritoneal macrophages was demonstrated, but not of macrophage-like cells from J774 cell line, which were treated by rMPT63 and rMPT83full proteins for 24 h. This effect of such antigens can be considered as a way to facilitate the consumption of mycobacterial cells by macrophages to avoid other effector mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity.

Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D(3) and bisphosphonates in nutritional osteoporosis in rats

V. M. Riasniy, L. I. Apukhovska, N. N. Veliky, I. O. Shymanskyy,
D. O. Labudzynskyi, S. V. Komisarenko

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: Riasniy@ukr.net

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of separate and combined administration of vitamin D3 and different forms of bis­phosphonate (disodium salt of methylenbisphosphonic acid dihydrate and alendronate) on the function of immune cells in rats with nutritional osteoporosis. It was shown that D-hypovitaminosis leads to reduced 25OHD3, which is a biomarker for vitamin D3 and disturbances of metabolic processes in bone tissue that correlated with osteoporosis manifestation. Immunologic disorders related to nutritional osteoporosis were accompanied by the decrease in phagocytic activity of granulocytes and impaired ability to produce bactericidal oxidants. Inhibition of B-cell immunity also occurred in pathol­gy. Thus, the present study revealed more pronounced immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D3 on phagocytic immunity, whereas bisphosphonates were effective in improving the humoral immune protection.

Sweet taste of cell death: role of carbohydrate recognition systems

R. Bilyy, R. Stoika

Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv;
e-mail: r.bilyy@nas.gov.ua; stoika@cellbiol.lviv.ua

This paper describes a complicated way how the glycoepitops’ alterations on a surface of dying cells allow investigators to decipher specific mechanisms underlying cell restructuring at apoptosis. These glycoepitops are important at removal of fragments of dying cells from the body, which can be a cause of formation of the auto-antibodies.

Vitamin D(3) availability and functional activity of peripheral blood phagocytes in experimental type 1 diabetes

D. О. Labudzynskyi, І. О. Shymanskyy, V. М. Riasnyi, М. М. Veliky

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: konsument3@gmail.com

The study was devoted to identifying the relation between vitamin D3 availability (assessed by the level of circulatory 25OHD3), content of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase isozymes CYP27A1 and CYP2R1 in hepatic tissue and functional activity of peripheral blood phagocytes in mice with experimental type 1 diabetes. It has been shown that diabetes is accompanied by the development of vitamin D3-deficiency which is characterized by decreased 25OHD3 content in blood serum and determined by changes in tissue expression of the major isoforms of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase. The level of hepatic CYP27A1 was revealed to be markedly reduced with a concurrent significant augmentation of CYP2R1. Cholecalciferol administration resulted in normalization of tissue levels of both isoforms of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase and blood serum 25OHD3 content. Diabetes-associated vitamin D3 deficiency correlated with a decrease in phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes, and their ability to produce antibacterial biooxidants such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen forms. Vitamin D3 efficacy to attenuate these abnormalities of immune function was established, indicating an important immunoregulatory role of cholecalciferol in the phagocytic mechanism of antigens elimination implemented by granulocytes and monocytes.