Tag Archives: protein

Yeast concentration in the diet defines Drosophila metabolism of both parental and offspring generations

O. M. Strilbytska1*, N. P. Stefanyshyn1,
U. V. Semaniuk1, O. V. Lushchak1,2*

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Research and Development University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 18 April 2021; Accepted: 12 November 2021

Parental dietary nutrients epigenetically influence offspring metabolism. Our analysis revealed unforeseen patterns in how enzymes of the main metabolic pathways respond to protein content in the diet. We reared parental flies Drosophila melanogaster on four types of diet with different dry yeast concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 15%. The subsequent generation was fed by the same diet, so the only variable in the experiments was the yeast concentration in the parental diet. We showed that protein restriction in the parental diet led to higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in parents, and this effect was inherited in their progeny. The transgenerational effect of parental dietary yeast on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was found only in males. An elevated level of dietary yeast was sufficient to enhance alanine transaminase ( ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity in parents, however, did not affect ALT activity and decreased AST  in their offspring. A low yeast parental diet was shown to cause higher urea content in F1 males. It is concluded that parental dietary yeast plays a critical role in metabolic health that can be inherited through generation.

Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs

A. A. Zhidenko, E. V. Bіbchuk, E. V. Barbukho

Taras Shevchenko Chernihiv State Pedagogical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: zaa2006@ukr.net

The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major ener­gy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate  decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides

Biochemical changes in rats under the influence of cesium chloride

N. M. Melnikova, O. V. Yermishev

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
e-mail: iermishev@i.ua

Cesium is lately accumulated actively in the environment, but its influence on human and ani­mal organism is the least studied among heavy metals. It is shown that the action of cesium chloride in rats caused significant changes in blood chemistry, which are characterized by a decrease of total protein content, pH, an increase in the level of urea, creatinine, glucose and total hemoglobin. The results showed that potassium content in all the studied organs and tissues of poisoned rats decreases under the action of cesium chloride. Histological examination of the heart tissue in rats poisoned with cesium chloride indicates the onset of pathology of cardiovascular system. It was found out that use of the drug “Asparkam” reduces the negative effect of cesium chloride on the body of rats.