Tag Archives: glucose

Developmental diet defines metabolic traits in larvae and adult Drosophila

O. M. Strilbytska1*, U. V. Semaniuk1, N. I. Burdyliyk1, V. Bubalo2, O. V. Lushchak1,3*

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology and Mutagenesis, L. I. Medved’s Research Center of Preventive Toxicology, Food and Chemical Safety, MHU, Kyiv, Ukraine;
3Research and Development University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
*e-mail: olya_b08@ukr.net or oleh.lushchak@pnu.edu.ua

Received: 04 October 2021; Accepted: 21 January 2022

The influence of the developmental nutrition on adult metabolism and overall performance becomes a hot topic of modern evolutionary biology. We used fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and experimental nutrition media composed of different sucrose content (S) and dry yeast content (Y): 0S:2Y, 20S:2Y or 0S:5Y, 20S:5Y to show that the developmental nutrition conditions define metabolism in larvae and adults. The level of glucose, glycogen, triglycerids and total lipids in the larvae and flies body were measured with the diagnostic assay kits. We found that individuals developed on either low-yeast or high-sugar diet showed delayed developmental rate. When kept on the diets with high sucrose content the larvae and adult flies had lower weight and higher amount of lipids as energy reserves. Restriction of dry yeast content in the diet of larvae led to a decrease in glycogen storage and protein levels in larvae and adult flies. The results obtained indicate that the metabolic traits revealed in adult flies are the result of nutrition during development and may be associated with mechanisms of organisms adaptation to the developmental nutritional conditions.

The role of resistin in the genesis of metabolic disorders in pathological pregnancy

S. O. Ostafiichuk

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine;
e-mail: svitlana.ostafijchuk@gmail.com

Received: 12 March 2019; Accepted: 13 August 2019

Pathological gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for obstetric and perinatal complications. High metabolic activity of adipose tissue and the placenta during pregnancy manifests as an increased production of adipokines that are involved in glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the role of resistin in the genesis of metabolic disorders in pathological GWG pregnancies. The 163 pregnant women were examined in the study: 97 (59.5%) had normal, 18 (11.0%) had insufficient and 48 (29.4%) had excessive prepregnancy weight and obesity. GWG was the recommended level in 56 (34.4%), insufficient in 33 (20.2%), and excessive in 74 (45.4%) women. Anthropometry was performed in each trimester of pregnancy, the weight gain was measured, and the percentage of body fat mass, concentrations of resistin, glucose, insulin, and the HOMA-IR were evaluated. Positive associations were found between hyperresis­tinemia in the second trimester of pregnancy, and subsequent weight gain (r = 0.27, P = 0.0006), percentage of body fat mass (r = 0.93, P = 0.000) and insulin resistance (r = 0.89, P = 0.000) in late pregnancy; these associations were especially evident in excessive GWG. Determination of predictors of insulin resistance, associated with endocrine activity of adipose tissue, such as the adipokine resistin, in the second trimester of pregnancy may help to predict the severity of metabolic shifts during pregnancy and the risk of developing obstetric and perinatal complications.

Intermittent fasting causes metabolic stress and leucopenia in young mice

O. M. Sorochynska1, M. M. Bayliak1, Y. V. Vasylyk1,
O. V. Kuzniak1, I. Z. Drohomyretska1, A. Ya. Klonovskyi1,
J. M. Storey2, K. B. Storey2, V. I. Lushchak1

1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
2Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada;
e-mail: lushchak@pu.if.ua

Received: 29 October 2018; Accepted: 13 December 2018

Overweight and obesity became the worldwide epidemic resulting from overeating especially when a so-called Western diet rich in carbohydrates and fats is used. It is widely accepted that limitation of food consumption could help to withstand such state of adult organism, but information about younger groups is contradictory. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of intermittent fasting, using an every other day (EOD) fasting/feeding protocol, on hematological parameters and biochemical blood plasma indices in young mice from one to two months old. It was shown that intermittently fasted mice were characterized by a reduced body weight, reduced total number of blood leucocytes, lower glucose and lactate levels and higher activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in blood plasma as compared with the age-matched control mice. To gain the same mass EOD animals needed to eat more food than ad libitum fed animals. These differences may probably be explained by a need to expend certain resources to combat stress induced by intermittent fasting. Our data showed that EOD feeding at a young age may negatively influence young mammals.

Fructose as a factor of carbonyl and oxidative stress development and accelerated aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

L. М. Lozinska, H. М. Semchyshyn

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
е-mail: semchyshyn@pu.if.ua

Excessive and prolonged consumption of fructose may lead to the development of metabolic disorders. However, the mechanisms of  disturbances are still discussed. In the present work, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model to compare the effects of prolonged consumption of different concentrations of glucose and fructose on certain physiology-biochemical parameters of eukaryotes. It has been shown that the yeast growth, their metabolic activity, intracellular level of glycogen and oxidized proteins were higher in cells grown on fructose. The observation is consistent with the data on a higher in vitro ability of fructose than glucose to initiate glycation which products of which are highly reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds and activated oxygen forms. Thus the intensity of carbonyl and oxidative stress is higher in cells grown on fructose. This can explain a higher rate of aging of yeast consuming fructose as a source of carbon and energy as compared to cells growing on glucose. However, carbohydrate restriction used in this study hampered the accumulation of glycogen and oxidized proteins and did not reveal any difference between markers of aging and carbonyl and oxidative stress in yeast grown on glucose and fructose.

Mild oxidative stress in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster caused by products of sucrose splitting

B. M. Rovenko, O. V. Lushchak, O. V. Lozinsky,
O. I. Kubrak, V. I. Lushchak

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
e-mail: olehl@pu.if.ua

The influence of 6% sucrose and equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose in larva diet on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids as well as the activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Larva growing on the diet with sucrose led to the mild oxidative stress development in adult insects, which was differently expressed in both sexes. In males mainly molecules of proteins were subjected to oxidative damages, whereas in females – lipid molecules. This is evidenced by 77% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and decreased (by 40%) level of protein SH-groups in males fed on sucrose. In females fed on sucrose the content of lipid peroxides was by 44% higher, than in individuals, hold on the diet with equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose. The oxidative stress in females was accompanied with increased activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiredoxin reductase by 30, 15 and 34%, respectively. The obtained results suggest that uptake mode of glucose and fructose affects free radical processes in fruit flies.

Carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism condition in the rat tissue under experimental rhabdomyolysis

P. A. Kaliman, S. M. Okhrimenko

Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine;
e-mail: s.okhrimenko@mail.ru

Some effects of glycerol injection on indices of the condition of the thiol-disulfide system as well as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in rats in vivo were studied. A decrease was revealed in levels of non-protein SH-groups in the liver, kidney and heart, as well as of protein SH-groups in the kidney and heart of rats following glycerol injection. That might be connected with SH-group oxidation under the excessive arrival of free haem into tissues under rhabdomyolysis. A decrease in glycogen and  increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver were observed. Activation of nitrogenous metabolism following glycerol injection is indicated by the increase of aminotransferase activity in organs, and concentration of blood urea. High concentration of creatinine in the rat serum can reflect malfiltration in kidneys.

Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster

B. M. Rovenko, V. I. Lushchak, O. V. Lushchak

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
е-mail address: olehl@pu.if.ua

The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the  level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40–50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60–70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes – glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

The influence of low-molecular fraction from cord blood (below 5 kDa) on functional and biochemical parameters of cells in vitro

A. K. Gulevsky, N. N. Moisieieva, O. L. Gorina,
J. S. Akhatova, A. A. Lavrik, A. V. Trifonova

Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv;
e-mail: moiseeva-nataly@rambler.ru

The influence of a low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) from the cattle cord blood (CBF) on functional activity of phagocytes, human embryonic fibroblasts, mesenchymal stromal cells and BHK-21 clone 13/04 and PK-15 cells was studied. The low-molecular fraction added to culture medium increases the growth rate of cell cultures. The incubation of leukoconcentrate in the CBF-containing medium results in an increase in phagocytic indices of neutrophils in the presence of a phagocytosis inhibitor – sodium iodoacetate, leading to a significant increase in intracellular glucose content and alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to the control and the reference drug Actovegin®.

Defects in tor regulatory complexes retard aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development in yeast Sассharomyces cerevisiae

B. V. Homza, R. A. Vasylkovska, H. М. Semchyshyn

Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine;
е-mail: semchyshyn@pu.if.ua

TOR signaling pathway first described in yeast S. сerevisiae is the highly conserved regulator of eukaryotic cell growth, aging and stress resistance. The effect of nitrogen sources, in particular amino acids, on the activity of TOR signaling pathway is well studied, however its relation to carbohydrates is poor understood. The aim of the present study is expanding of our understanding of potential role of TOR regulatory complexes in development of carbonyl/oxidative stress that can result from yeast cultivation on glucose and fructose. It has been shown that the level of α-dicarbonyl compounds and protein carbonyl groups increased with time of yeast cultivation and was higher in cells grown on fructose that demonstrated their accelerated aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development as compared with cells grown on glucose. The strains defective in TOR proteins cultivated in the presence of glucose as well as fructose demonstrated lower markers of the stress and aging than parental strain. Thus these data confirmed the previous conclusion on fructose more potent ability to cause carbonyl/oxidative stress and accelerated aging in S. cerevisiae as compared with glucose. However, defects in TOR regulatory complexes retard aging and development of the stress in yeast independent on the type of carbohydrate in the cultivation medium.